skip to main content

Title: Analyzing the Impact of Memristor Variability on Crossbar Implementation of Regression Algorithms With Smart Weight Update Pulsing Techniques
This paper presents an extensive study of linear and logistic regression algorithms implemented with 1T1R memristor crossbars arrays. Using a sophisticated simulation platform that wraps circuit-level simulations of 1T1R crossbars and physics-based models of RRAM (memristors), we elucidate the impact of device variability on algorithm accuracy, convergence rate and precision. Moreover, a smart pulsing strategy is proposed for practical implementation of synaptic weight updates that can accelerate training in real crossbar architectures. Stochastic multi-variable linear regression shows robustness to memristor variability in terms of prediction accuracy but reveals impact on convergence rate and precision. Similarly, the stochastic logistic regression crossbar implementation reveals immunity to memristor variability as determined by negligible effects on image classification accuracy but indicates an impact on training performance manifested as reduced convergence rate and degraded precision.
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In this paper, we propose a new approach for robust compressive sensing (CS) using memristor crossbars that are constructed by recently invented memristor devices. The exciting features of a memristor crossbar, such as high density, low power and great scalability, make it a promising candidate to perform large-scale matrix operations. To apply memristor crossbars to solve a robust CS problem, the alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) is employed to split the original problem into subproblems that involve the solution of systems of linear equations. A system of linear equations can then be solved using memristor crossbars with astonishing O(1) time complexity. We also study the impact of hardware variations on the memristor crossbar based CS solver from both theoretical and practical points of view. The resulting overall complexity is given by O(n), which achieves O(n2.5) speed-up compared to the state-of-the-art software approach. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed CS solver.
  2. Memristors have recently received significant attention as device-level components for building a novel generation of computing systems. These devices have many promising features, such as non-volatility, low power consumption, high density, and excellent scalability. The ability to control and modify biasing voltages at memristor terminals make them promising candidates to efficiently perform matrix-vector multiplications and solve systems of linear equations. In this article, we discuss how networks of memristors arranged in crossbar arrays can be used for efficiently solving optimization and machine learning problems. We introduce a new memristor-based optimization framework that combines the computational merits of memristor crossbars with the advantages of an operator splitting method, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here, ADMM helps in splitting a complex optimization problem into subproblems that involve the solution of systems of linear equations. The strength of this framework is shown by applying it to linear programming, quadratic programming, and sparse optimization. In addition to ADMM, implementation of a customized power iteration method for eigenvalue/eigenvector computation using memristor crossbars is discussed. The memristor-based power iteration method can further be applied to principal component analysis. The use of memristor crossbars yields a significant speed-up in computation, and thus, we believe, hasmore »the potential to advance optimization and machine learning research in artificial intelligence.« less
  3. Abstract

    Recent studies of resistive switching devices with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as the switching layer have shown the potential of two-dimensional (2D) materials for memory and neuromorphic computing applications. The use of 2D materials allows scaling the resistive switching layer thickness to sub-nanometer dimensions enabling devices to operate with low switching voltages and high programming speeds, offering large improvements in efficiency and performance as well as ultra-dense integration. These characteristics are of interest for the implementation of neuromorphic computing and machine learning hardware based on memristor crossbars. However, existing demonstrations of h-BN memristors focus on single isolated device switching properties and lack attention to fundamental machine learning functions. This paper demonstrates the hardware implementation of dot product operations, a basic analog function ubiquitous in machine learning, using h-BN memristor arrays. Moreover, we demonstrate the hardware implementation of a linear regression algorithm on h-BN memristor arrays.

  4. The increasing complexity of deep learning systems has pushed conventional computing technologies to their limits. While the memristor is one of the prevailing technologies for deep learning acceleration, it is only suited for classical learning layers where only two operands, namely weights and inputs, are processed simultaneously. Meanwhile, to improve the computational efficiency of deep learning for emerging applications, a variety of non-traditional layers requiring concurrent processing of many operands are becoming popular. For example, hypernetworks improve their predictive robustness by simultaneously processing weights and inputs against the application context. Two-electrode memristor grids cannot directly map emerging layers’ higher-order multiplicative neural interactions. Addressing this unmet need, we present crossbar processing using dual-gated memtransistors based on two-dimensional semiconductor MoS 2 . Unlike the memristor, the resistance states of memtransistors can be persistently programmed and can be actively controlled by multiple gate electrodes. Thus, the discussed memtransistor crossbar enables several advanced inference architectures beyond a conventional passive crossbar. For example, we show that sneak paths can be effectively suppressed in memtransistor crossbars, whereas they limit size scalability in a passive memristor crossbar. Similarly, exploiting gate terminals to suppress crossbar weights dynamically reduces biasing power by ∼20% in memtransistor crossbars for a fullymore »connected layer of AlexNet. On emerging layers such as hypernetworks, collocating multiple operations within the same crossbar cells reduces operating power by ∼ 15 × on the considered network cases.« less
  5. Abstract

    The progress in the field of neural computation hinges on the use of hardware more efficient than the conventional microprocessors. Recent works have shown that mixed-signal integrated memristive circuits, especially their passive (0T1R) variety, may increase the neuromorphic network performance dramatically, leaving far behind their digital counterparts. The major obstacle, however, is immature memristor technology so that only limited functionality has been reported. Here we demonstrate operation of one-hidden layer perceptron classifier entirely in the mixed-signal integrated hardware, comprised of two passive 20 × 20 metal-oxide memristive crossbar arrays, board-integrated with discrete conventional components. The demonstrated network, whose hardware complexity is almost 10× higher as compared to previously reported functional classifier circuits based on passive memristive crossbars, achieves classification fidelity within 3% of that obtained in simulations, when using ex-situ training. The successful demonstration was facilitated by improvements in fabrication technology of memristors, specifically by lowering variations in theirI–Vcharacteristics.