skip to main content

Title: The Effect of Laser Shock Peening on Back Stress of Additively Manufactured Stainless Steel Parts
Abstract This work studies the use of laser shock peening (LSP) to improve back stress in additively manufactured (AM) 316L parts. Unusual hardening behavior in AM metal due to tortuous microstructure and strong texture poses additional design challenges. Anisotropic mechanical behavior complicates application for mechanical design because 3D printed parts will behave differently than traditionally manufactured parts under the same loading conditions. The prevalence of back-stress hardening or the Bauschinger effect causes reduced fatigue life under random loading and dissipates beneficial compressive residual stresses that prevent crack propagation. LSP is known to improve fatigue life by inducing compressive residual stress and has been applied with promising results to AM metal parts. It is here demonstrated that LSP may also be used as a tool for mitigating tensile back-stress hardening in AM parts, thereby reducing anisotropic hardening behavior and improving design use. It is also shown that the method of application of LSP to additively manufactured parts is key for achieving effective back-stress reduction. Back stress is extracted from additively manufactured dog bone samples built in both XY and XZ directions using hysteresis tensile. Both LSPed and as-built conditions are tested and compared, showing that LSPed samples exhibit a significant reduction to back stress when the laser processing is applied to the sample along the build direction. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) performed under these conditions elucidates how grain morphologies and texture contribute to the observed improvement. Crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling develops insights as to the mechanisms by which this reduction is achieved in comparison with EBSD results. In particular, the difference in plastic behavior across build orientations of identified crystal planes and grain families are shown to impact the degree of LSP-induced back-stress reduction that is sustained through tensile loading.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Laser shock peening (LSP) is investigated as a potential tool for reducing tensile back stress, shown here applied to rolled and annealed 304L austenitic steel. The back stress of treated and untreated dog-bone samples is extracted from hysteresis tensile testing. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) analysis quantify the geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density distribution of unstrained and strained as well as unpeened and peened conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation models back stress and residual stress development through tensile testing and LSP treatment using known LSP pressure models and Ziegler's nonlinear kinematic hardening law. Nonlinear regression fitting of tensile testing stress–strain in as-received specimens extracts the kinematic hardening parameters that are used in numerical study. This research shows LSP may be used to overcome manufacturing design challenges presented by yield asymmetry due to back stress in rolled steel. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract In this research, a room temperature multicycle nanoindentation technique was implemented to evaluate the effects of the laser peening (LP) process on the surface mechanical behavior of additively manufactured (AM) Inconel 625. Repetitive deformation was introduced by loading-unloading during an instrumented nanoindentation test on the as-built (No LP), 1-layer, and 4-layer laser peened (1LP and 4LP) conditions. It was observed that laser-peened specimens had a significantly higher resistance to penetration of the indenter and lower permanent deformation. This is attributed to the pre-existing dislocation density induced by LP in the material which affects the dislocation interactions during the cyclic indentation. Moreover, high levels of compressive stresses, which are greater in the 4LP specimen than the 1LP specimen, lead to more effective improvement of surface fatigue properties. The transition of the material response from elastic-plastic to almost purely elastic in 4LP specimens was initiated much earlier than it did in the No LP, and 1LP specimens. In addition to the surface fatigue properties, hardness and elastic modulus were also evaluated and compared. 
    more » « less
  3. This study investigates the application of electroless nickel deposition on additively manufactured stainless steel samples. Current additive manufacturing (AM) technologies produce metal components with a rough surface. Rough surfaces generally exhibit fatigue characteristics, increasing the probability of initiating a crack or fracture to the printed part. For this reason, the direct use of as-produced parts in a finished product cannot be actualized, which presents a challenge. Post-processing of the AM parts is therefore required to smoothen the surface. This study analyzes chempolish (CP) and electropolish (EP) surface finishing techniques for post-processing AM stainless steel components CP has a great advantage in creating uniform, smooth surfaces regardless of size or part geometry EP creates an extremely smooth surface, which reduces the surface roughness to the sub-micrometer level.

    In this study, we also investigate nickel deposition on EP, CP, and as-built AM components using electroless nickel solutions. Electroless nickel plating is a method of alloy treatment designed to increase manufactured component’s hardness and surface resistance to the unrelenting environment. The electroless nickel plating process is more straightforward than its counterpart electroplating. We use low-phosphorus (2–5% P), medium-phosphorus (6–9% P), and high-phosphorus (10–13% P). These Ni deposition experiments were optimized using the L9 Taguchi design of experiments (TDOE), which compromises the prosperous content in the solution, surface finish, plane of the geometry, and bath temperature. The pre- and post-processed surface of the AM parts was characterized by KEYENCE Digital MicroscopeVHX-7000 and Phenom XL Desktop SEM. The experimental results show that electroless nickel deposition produces uniform Ni coating on the additively manufactured components up to 20 μm per hour. Mechanical properties of as-built and Ni coated AM samples were analyzed by applying a standard 10 N scratch test. Nickel coated AM samples were up to two times scratch resistant compared to the as-built samples. This study suggests electroless nickel plating is a robust viable option for surface hardening and finishing AM components for various applications and operating conditions. 

    more » « less
  4. The finishing of additive manufactured (AM) components is crucial for endowing them with fatigue resistance. Unfortunately, current AM processes naturally promote anisotropic surface characteristics that make it challenging to optimize finishing processes. In this study, bead-blasting is explored as a process for finishing Electron Beam Melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V. The effects of anisotropic roughness characteristics on the mechanics of bead-blasting are delineated using surface texture measurements via optical profilometry and residual stress measurements via X-ray diffraction. As-received surfaces resulting from AM, as well as those that have been Electrical Discharge Machined (EDM), are studied. It is seen that pre-processed roughness textures heavily influence the final textures and residual stresses. These linkages are quantified using a plasticity index as the governing metric—a rougher surface features a larger plastic index, which results in comparatively greater evolution of its texture characteristics than a smoother surface after equivalent bead-blasting treatments. The mechanics of this evolution are delineated using energy-controlled indentation as a model representing a single impact in bead-blasting. It is seen that rougher surfaces featuring complex textures in as-received states also produce complex stress states featuring a greater level of locally tensile stresses during indentation compared with smoother surfaces. Approaches to address these complications are proposed that can potentially transform a printed, non-functional surface into one that is optimized for fatigue resistance.

    more » « less
  5. Purpose AlSi10Mg alloy is commonly used in laser powder bed fusion due to its printability, relatively high thermal conductivity, low density and good mechanical properties. However, the thermal conductivity of as-built materials as a function of processing (energy density, laser power, laser scanning speed, support structure) and build orientation, are not well explored in the literature. This study aims to elucidate the relationship between processing, microstructure, and thermal conductivity. Design/methodology/approach The thermal conductivity of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) AlSi10Mg samples are investigated by the flash diffusivity and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) techniques. Thermal conductivities are linked to the microstructure of L-PBF AlSi10Mg, which changes with processing conditions. The through-plane exceeded the in-plane thermal conductivity for all energy densities. A co-located thermal conductivity map by frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) and crystallographic grain orientation map by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to investigate the effect of microstructure on thermal conductivity. Findings The highest through-plane thermal conductivity (136 ± 2 W/m-K) was achieved at 59 J/mm 3 and exceeded the values reported previously. The in-plane thermal conductivity peaked at 117 ± 2 W/m-K at 50 J/mm 3 . The trend of thermal conductivity reducing with energy density at similar porosity was primarily due to the reduced grain size producing more Al-Si interfaces that pose thermal resistance. At these interfaces, thermal energy must convert from electrons in the aluminum to phonons in the silicon. The co-located thermal conductivity and crystallographic grain orientation maps confirmed that larger colonies of columnar grains have higher thermal conductivity compared to smaller columnar grains. Practical implications The thermal properties of AlSi10Mg are crucial to heat transfer applications including additively manufactured heatsinks, cold plates, vapor chambers, heat pipes, enclosures and heat exchangers. Additionally, thermal-based nondestructive testing methods require these properties for applications such as defect detection and simulation of L-PBF processes. Industrial standards for L-PBF processes and components can use the data for thermal applications. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to make coupled thermal conductivity maps that were matched to microstructure for L-PBF AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy. This was achieved by a unique in-house thermal conductivity mapping setup and relating the data to local SEM EBSD maps. This provides the first conclusive proof that larger grain sizes can achieve higher thermal conductivity for this processing method and material system. This study also shows that control of the solidification can result in higher thermal conductivity. It was also the first to find that the build substrate (with or without support) has a large effect on thermal conductivity. 
    more » « less