skip to main content


Title: Theoretical and experimental constraints for the equation of state of dense and hot matter
Abstract

This review aims at providing an extensive discussion of modern constraints relevant for dense and hot strongly interacting matter. It includes theoretical first-principle results from lattice and perturbative QCD, as well as chiral effective field theory results. From the experimental side, it includes heavy-ion collision and low-energy nuclear physics results, as well as observations from neutron stars and their mergers. The validity of different constraints, concerning specific conditions and ranges of applicability, is also provided.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2308242 2209318
NSF-PAR ID:
10512433
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publisher / Repository:
Springer Science + Business Media
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Living Reviews in Relativity
Volume:
27
Issue:
1
ISSN:
1433-8351
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. This paper provides an analysis of explanatory constraints and their role in scientific explanation. This analysis clarifies main characteristics of explanatory constraints, ways in which they differ from “standard” explanatory factors, and the unique roles they play in scientific explanation. While current philosophical work appreciates two main types of explanatory constraints, this paper suggests a new taxonomy: law-based constraints, mathematical constraints, and causal constraints. This classification helps capture unique features of constraint types, the different roles they play in explanation, and it includes causal constraints, which are often overlooked in this literature.

     
    more » « less
  2. ABSTRACT

    We present the Sherwood–Relics simulations, a new suite of large cosmological hydrodynamical simulations aimed at modelling the intergalactic medium (IGM) during and after the cosmic reionization of hydrogen. The suite consists of over 200 simulations that cover a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological parameters. It also includes simulations that use a new lightweight hybrid scheme for treating radiative transfer effects. This scheme follows the spatial variations in the ionizing radiation field, as well as the associated fluctuations in IGM temperature and pressure smoothing. It is computationally much cheaper than full radiation hydrodynamics simulations, and circumvents the difficult task of calibrating a galaxy formation model to observational constraints on cosmic reionization. Using this hybrid technique, we study the spatial fluctuations in IGM properties that are seeded by patchy cosmic reionization. We investigate the relevant physical processes and assess their impact on the z > 4 Lyman-α forest. Our main findings are: (i) consistent with previous studies patchy reionization causes large-scale temperature fluctuations that persist well after the end of reionization, (ii) these increase the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum on large scales, and (iii) result in a spatially varying pressure smoothing that correlates well with the local reionization redshift. (iv) Structures evaporated or puffed up by photoheating cause notable features in the Lyman-α forest, such as flat-bottom or double-dip absorption profiles.

     
    more » « less
  3. ABSTRACT

    We present a novel analysis for cluster cosmology that fully forward models the abundances, weak lensing, and the clustering of galaxy clusters. Our analysis notably includes an empirical model for the anisotropic boosts impacting the lensing and clustering signals of optical clusters. These boosts arise from a preferential selection of clusters surrounded by anisotropic large-scale structure, a consequence of the limited discrimination between line-of-sight interlopers and true cluster members offered by photometric surveys. We validate our analysis via a blind cosmology challenge on mocks, and find that we can obtain tight and unbiased cosmological constraints without informative priors or external calibrations on any of our model parameters. We then apply our analysis on the SDSS redMaPPer clusters, and find results favoring low Ωm and high σ8, combining to yield the lensing strength constraint $S_8 = 0.715_{-0.021}^{+0.024}$. We investigate potential drivers behind these results through a series of post-unblinding tests, noting that our results are consistent with existing cluster cosmology constraints but clearly inconsistent with other CMB/LSS based cosmology results. From these tests, we find hints that a suppression in the cluster lensing signal may be driving our results.

     
    more » « less
  4. Summary

    The paper proposes and examines a calibration method for inexact models. The method produces a confidence set on the parameters that includes the best parameter with a desired probability under any sample size. Additionally, this confidence set is shown to be consistent in that it excludes suboptimal parameters in large sample environments. The method works and the results hold with few assumptions; the ideas are maintained even with discrete input spaces or parameter spaces. Computation of the confidence sets and approximate confidence sets is discussed. The performance is illustrated in a simulation example as well as two real data examples.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The thermal structure of the Tibetan plateau—the largest orogenic system on Earth—remains largely unknown. Numerous avenues provide fragmentary pressure/temperature information, both at the present (predominantly informed though geophysical observation) and on the evolution of the thermal structure over the recent past (combining petrological, geochemical, and geophysical observables). However, these individual constraints have proven hard to reconcile with each other. Here, we show that models for the simple underthrusting of India beneath southern Tibet are capable of matching all available constraints on its thermal structure, both at the present day and since the Miocene. Many parameters in such models remain poorly constrained, and we explore the various trade‐offs among the competing influences these parameters may have. However, three consistent features to such models emerge: (i) that present‐day geophysical observations require the presence of relatively cold underthrust Indian lithosphere beneath southern Tibet; (ii) that geochemical constraints require the removal of Indian mantle from beneath southern Tibet at some point during the early Miocene, although the mechanism of this removal, and whether it includes the removal of any crustal material, is not constrained by our models; and (iii) that the combination of the southern extent of Miocene mantle‐derived magmatism and the present‐day geophysical structure and earthquake distribution of southern Tibet require that the time‐averaged rate of underthrusting of India relative to central Tibet since the middle Miocene has been faster than it is at present.

     
    more » « less