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  1. The landscape of privacy laws and regulations around the world is complex and ever-changing. National and super-national laws, agreements, decrees, and other government-issued rules form a patchwork that companies must follow to operate internationally. To examine the status and evolution of this patchwork, we introduce the Privacy Law Corpus, of 1,043 privacy laws, regulations, and guidelines, covering 183 jurisdictions. This corpus enables a large-scale quantitative and qualitative examination of legal focus on privacy. We examine the temporal distribution of when privacy laws were created and illustrate the dramatic increase in privacy legislation over the past 50 years, although a finer-grained examination reveals that the rate of increase varies depending on the personal data types that privacy laws address. Our exploration also demonstrates that most privacy laws respectively address relatively few personal data types. Additionally, topic modeling results show the prevalence of common themes in privacy laws, such as finance, healthcare, and telecommunications. Finally, we release the corpus to the research community to promote further study. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 17, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The observation of X-rays during quiescence from transiently accreting neutron stars provides unique clues about the nature of dense matter. This, however, requires extensive modeling of the crusts and matching the results to observations. The pycnonuclear fusion reaction rates implemented in these models are theoretically calculated by extending phenomenological expressions and have large uncertainties spanning many orders of magnitude. We present the first sensitivity studies of these pycnonuclear fusion reactions in realistic network calculations. We also couple the reaction network with the thermal evolution codedStarto further study their impact on the neutron star cooling curves in quiescence. Varying the pycnonuclear fusion reaction rates alters the depth at which nuclear heat is deposited although the total heating remains constant. The enhancement of the pycnonuclear fusion reaction rates leads to an overall shallower deposition of nuclear heat. The impurity factors are also altered depending on the type of ashes deposited on the crust. These total changes correspond to a variation of up to 9 eV in the modeled cooling curves. While this is not sufficient to explain the shallow heat source, it is comparable to the observational uncertainties and can still be important for modeling the neutron star crust.

     
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