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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 3, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 4, 2023
  3. Decades of research confirm that interpretation and environmental education on public lands can accomplish a wide variety of positive outcomes for participants, ranging from personal learning and growth to stewardship behaviors both onand off-site. This research note offers a brief summary of the state-of-the-field of interpretation and environmental education research as applied to public lands. It highlights the general state of knowledge and identifies opportunities for researchers to further enhance our understanding about education on public lands to maximize benefits for visitors and managers alike. In particular, we emphasize the value of large-scale comparative studies as well as collaborative approaches to adaptive management, in which researchers support active experimentation through iterative data collection and analysis within a learning network of multiple program providers. This latter approach promotes evidenced-based learning within a larger community practice in which participants can benefit from the diverse knowledge, experiences, and data that each brings into the network.
  4. While OWL and RDF are by far the most popular logic-based languages for Semantic Web Ontologies, some well-designed ontologies are only available in languages with a much richer expressivity, such as first-order logic (FOL) or the ISO standard Common Logic. This inhibits reuse of these ontologies by the wider Semantic Web Community. While converting OWL ontologies to FOL is straightforward, the reverse problem of finding the closest OWL approximation of an FOL ontology is undecidable. However, for most practical purposes, a ``good enough'' OWL approximation need not be perfect to enable wider reuse by the Semantic Web Community. This paper outlines such a conversion approach by first normalizing FOL sentences into a function-free prenex conjunctive normal (FF-PCNF) that strips away minor syntactic differences and then applying a pattern-based approach to identify common OWL axioms. It is tested on the over 2,000 FOL ontologies from the Common Logic Ontology Repository.
  5. Abstract

    Cryptogenic species are those whose native and introduced ranges are unknown. The extent and long history of human migration rendered numerous species cryptogenic. Incomplete knowledge regarding the origin and native habitat of a species poses problems for conservation management and may confound ecological and evolutionary studies. The Lesser Antilles pose a particular challenge with regard to cryptogenic species because these islands have been anthropogenically connected since before recorded history. Here, we use population genetic and phylogeographic tools in an attempt to determine the origin ofEleutherodactylus johnstonei, a frog species with a potentially widespread introduced range and whose native range within the Lesser Antilles is unknown. Based on elevated estimates of genetic diversity and within-island geographic structure not present elsewhere in the range, we identify Montserrat as the native island ofE. johnstonei. We also document two major clades withinE. johnstonei, only one of which is the primary source of introduced populations throughout the Americas. Our results demonstrate the utility of genetic tools for resolving cryptogenic species problems and highlightE. johnstoneias a potential system for understanding differences in invasive potential among sister lineages.