The summation over spin structures, which is required to implement the GSO projection in the RNS formulation of superstring theories, often presents a significant impediment to the explicit evaluation of superstring amplitudes. In this paper we discover that, for Riemann surfaces of genus two and even spin structures, a collection of novel identities leads to a dramatic simplification of the spin structure sum. Explicit formulas for an arbitrary number of vertex points are obtained in two steps. First, we show that the spin structure dependence of a cyclic product of Szegö kernels (i.e. Dirac propagators for worldsheet fermions) may be reduced to the spin structure dependence of the fourpoint function. Of particular importance are certain
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A<sc>bstract</sc> trilinear relations that we shall define and prove. In a second step, the known expressions for the genustwo even spin structure measure are used to perform the remaining spin structure sums. The dependence of the spin summand on the vertex points is reduced to simple building blocks that can already be identified from the twopoint function. The hyperelliptic formulation of genustwo Riemann surfaces is used to derive these results, and its SL(2, ℂ) covariance is employed to organize the calculations and the structure of the final formulas. The translation of these results into the language of Riemannϑ functions, and applications to the evaluation of higherpoint string amplitudes, are relegated to subsequent companion papers. 
A bstract The contribution from even spin structures to the genustwo amplitude for five massless external NS states in Type II and Heterotic superstrings is evaluated from first principles in the RNS formulation. Using chiral splitting with the help of loop momenta this problem reduces to the evaluation of the corresponding chiral amplitude, which is carried out using the same techniques that were used for the genustwo amplitude with four external NS states. The results agree with the parityeven NS components of a construction using chiral splitting and pure spinors given in earlier companion papers [29] and [33].more » « less

The purpose of this White Paper is to review recent progress towards elucidating and evaluating string amplitudes, relating them to quantum field theory amplitudes, applying their predictions to string dualities, exploring their connection with gravitational physics, and deepening our under standing of their mathematical structure. We also present a selection of targets for future research.more » « less

null (Ed.)A bstract Elliptic modular graph functions and forms (eMGFs) are defined for arbitrary graphs as natural generalizations of modular graph functions and forms obtained by including the character of an Abelian group in their KroneckerEisenstein series. The simplest examples of eMGFs are given by the Green function for a massless scalar field on the torus and the Zagier singlevalued elliptic polylogarithms. More complicated eMGFs are produced by the nonseparating degeneration of a higher genus surface to a genus one surface with punctures. eMGFs may equivalently be represented by multiple integrals over the torus of combinations of coefficients of the KroneckerEisenstein series, and may be assembled into generating series. These relations are exploited to derive holomorphic subgraph reduction formulas, as well as algebraic and differential identities between eMGFs and their generating series.more » « less

null (Ed.)A bstract In an earlier paper, we constructed the genustwo amplitudes for five external massless states in Type II and Heterotic string theory, and showed that the α ′ expansion of the Type II amplitude reproduces the corresponding supergravity amplitude to leading order. In this paper, we analyze the effective interactions induced by Type IIB superstrings beyond supergravity, both for U(1) R preserving amplitudes such as for five gravitons, and for U(1) R violating amplitudes such as for one dilaton and four gravitons. At each order in α ′, the coefficients of the effective interactions are given by integrals over moduli space of genustwo modular graph functions, generalizing those already encountered for four external massless states. To leading and subleading orders, the coefficients of the effective interactions D 2 ℛ 5 and D 4 ℛ 5 are found to match those of D 4 ℛ 4 and D 6 ℛ 4 , respectively, as required by nonlinear supersymmetry. To the next order, a D 6 ℛ 5 effective interaction arises, which is independent of the supersymmetric completion of D 8 ℛ 4 , and already arose at genus one. A novel identity on genustwo modular graph functions, which we prove, ensures that up to order D 6 ℛ 5 , the fivepoint amplitudes require only a single new modular graph function in addition to those needed for the fourpoint amplitude. We check that the supergravity limit of U(1) R violating amplitudes is free of UV divergences to this order, consistently with the known structure of divergences in Type IIB supergravity. Our results give strong consistency tests on the full fivepoint amplitude, and pave the way for understanding Sduality beyond the BPSprotected sector.more » « less

null (Ed.)A bstract The full twoloop amplitudes for five massless states in Type II and Heterotic superstrings are constructed in terms of convergent integrals over the genustwo moduli space of compact Riemann surfaces and integrals of Green functions and Abelian differentials on the surface. The construction combines elements from the BRST cohomology of the pure spinor formulation and from chiral splitting with the help of loop momenta and homology invariance. The α ′ → 0 limit of the resulting superstring amplitude is shown to be in perfect agreement with the previously known amplitude computed in Type II supergravity. Investigations of the α ′ expansion of the Type II amplitude and comparisons with predictions from Sduality are relegated to a first companion paper. A construction from first principles in the RNS formulation of the genustwo amplitude with five external NS states is relegated to a second companion paper.more » « less