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  1. Thermoelectric materials, which can convert waste heat into electricity or act as solid‐state Peltier coolers, are emerging as key technologies to address global energy shortages and environmental sustainability. However, discovering materials with high thermoelectric conversion efficiency is a complex and slow process. The emerging field of high‐throughput material discovery demonstrates its potential to accelerate the development of new thermoelectric materials combining high efficiency and low cost. The synergistic integration of high‐throughput material processing and characterization techniques with machine learning algorithms can form an efficient closed‐loop process to generate and analyze broad datasets to discover new thermoelectric materials with unprecedented performances. Meanwhile, the recent development of advanced manufacturing methods provides exciting opportunities to realize scalable, low‐cost, and energy‐efficient fabrication of thermoelectric devices. This review provides an overview of recent advances in discovering thermoelectric materials using high‐throughput methods, including processing, characterization, and screening. Advanced manufacturing methods of thermoelectric devices are also introduced to realize the broad impacts of thermoelectric materials in power generation and solid‐state cooling. In the end, this article also discusses the future research prospects and directions.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 4, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is rapidly revolutionizing modern manufacturing with recent progress in advanced printing methods and improved properties of printed materials. However, traditional AM methods are limited by their input‐oriented nature, which demands tedious trial‐and‐error tuning of printing parameters to achieve desired output properties. Here, an output‐oriented artificial intelligence‐integrated AM (AIAM) method is reported that enables an user to specify desired output properties while the printer autonomously discovers the optimal input printing parameters by integrating hybrid machine learning models and in situ measurements. Based on a predictive mapping between the input printing parameters and the output properties of interests established with <20 experiments designed by active learning, inverse design tasks are performed to intelligently generate the printing parameter settings that lead to desired outcomes using reinforcement learning. This method is demonstrated by autonomous aerosol jet printing (AJP) of conductive polymer films and achieving user‐defined electrical resistances with an ultralow error of 3.7%. The AIAM method, with its output‐oriented nature, holds the potential to significantly improve the autonomy, predictability, efficiency, and accessibility of the AM processes, which will unlock new possibilities in the autonomous and intelligent printing of a broad range of functional materials and devices.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 10, 2025
  3. Abstract

    The advent of 3D printing has facilitated the rapid fabrication of microfluidic devices that are accessible and cost‐effective. However, it remains a challenge to fabricate sophisticated microfluidic devices with integrated structural and functional components due to limited material options of existing printing methods and their stringent requirement on feedstock material properties. Here, a multi‐materials multi‐scale hybrid printing method that enables seamless integration of a broad range of structural and functional materials into complex devices is reported. A fully printed and assembly‐free microfluidic biosensor with embedded fluidic channels and functionalized electrodes at sub‐100 µm spatial resolution for the amperometric sensing of lactate in sweat is demonstrated. The sensors present a sensitive response with a limit of detection of 442 nmand a linear dynamic range of 1–10 mm, which are performance characteristics relevant to physiological levels of lactate in sweat. The versatile hybrid printing method offers a new pathway toward facile fabrication of next‐generation integrated devices for broad applications in point‐of‐care health monitoring and sensing.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 26, 2024
  4. Flexible thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have shown immense potential for serving as a power source for wearable electronics and the Internet of Things. A key challenge preventing large-scale application of TEGs lies in the lack of a high-throughput processing method, which can sinter thermoelectric (TE) materials rapidly while maintaining their high thermoelectric properties. Herein, we integrate high-throughput experimentation and Bayesian optimization (BO) to accelerate the discovery of the optimum sintering conditions of silver–selenide TE films using an ultrafast intense pulsed light (flash) sintering technique. Due to the nature of the high-dimensional optimization problem of flash sintering processes, a Gaussian process regression (GPR) machine learning model is established to rapidly recommend the optimum flash sintering variables based on Bayesian expected improvement. For the first time, an ultrahigh-power factor flexible TE film (a power factor of 2205 μW m −1 K −2 with a zT of 1.1 at 300 K) is demonstrated with a sintering time less than 1.0 second, which is several orders of magnitude shorter than that of conventional thermal sintering techniques. The films also show excellent flexibility with 92% retention of the power factor (PF) after 10 3 bending cycles with a 5 mm bending radius. In addition, a wearable thermoelectric generator based on the flash-sintered films generates a very competitive power density of 0.5 mW cm −2 at a temperature difference of 10 K. This work not only shows the tremendous potential of high-performance and flexible silver–selenide TEGs but also demonstrates a machine learning-assisted flash sintering strategy that could be used for ultrafast, high-throughput and scalable processing of functional materials for a broad range of energy and electronic applications. 
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  5. Abstract

    The development of new materials and their compositional and microstructural optimization are essential in regard to next-generation technologies such as clean energy and environmental sustainability. However, materials discovery and optimization have been a frustratingly slow process. The Edisonian trial-and-error process is time consuming and resource inefficient, particularly when contrasted with vast materials design spaces1. Whereas traditional combinatorial deposition methods can generate material libraries2,3, these suffer from limited material options and inability to leverage major breakthroughs in nanomaterial synthesis. Here we report a high-throughput combinatorial printing method capable of fabricating materials with compositional gradients at microscale spatial resolution. In situ mixing and printing in the aerosol phase allows instantaneous tuning of the mixing ratio of a broad range of materials on the fly, which is an important feature unobtainable in conventional multimaterials printing using feedstocks in liquid–liquid or solid–solid phases4–6. We demonstrate a variety of high-throughput printing strategies and applications in combinatorial doping, functional grading and chemical reaction, enabling materials exploration of doped chalcogenides and compositionally graded materials with gradient properties. The ability to combine the top-down design freedom of additive manufacturing with bottom-up control over local material compositions promises the development of compositionally complex materials inaccessible via conventional manufacturing approaches.

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  6. The ability of thermoelectric (TE) materials to convert thermal energy to electricity and vice versa highlights them as a promising candidate for sustainable energy applications. Despite considerable increases in the figure of merit zT of thermoelectric materials in the past two decades, there is still a prominent need to develop scalable synthesis and flexible manufacturing processes to convert high-efficiency materials into high-performance devices. Scalable printing techniques provide a versatile solution to not only fabricate both inorganic and organic TE materials with fine control over the compositions and microstructures, but also manufacture thermoelectric devices with optimized geometric and structural designs that lead to improved efficiency and system-level performances. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive framework of printing thermoelectric materials and devices by including recent breakthroughs and relevant discussions on TE materials chemistry, ink formulation, flexible or conformable device design, and processing strategies, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing techniques. In addition, we review recent innovations in the flexible, conformal, and stretchable device architectures and highlight state-of-the-art applications of these TE devices in energy harvesting and thermal management. Perspectives of emerging research opportunities and future directions are also discussed. While this review centers on thermoelectrics, the fundamental ink chemistry and printing processes possess the potential for applications to a broad range of energy, thermal and electronic devices. 
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  9. Abstract

    Optimizing material compositions often enhances thermoelectric performances. However, the large selection of possible base elements and dopants results in a vast composition design space that is too large to systematically search using solely domain knowledge. To address this challenge, a hybrid data‐driven strategy that integrates Bayesian optimization (BO) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) is proposed to optimize the composition of five elements (Ag, Se, S, Cu, and Te) in AgSe‐based thermoelectric materials. Data is collected from the literature to provide prior knowledge for the initial GPR model, which is updated by actively collected experimental data during the iteration between BO and experiments. Within seven iterations, the optimized AgSe‐based materials prepared using a simple high‐throughput ink mixing and blade coating method deliver a high power factor of 2100 µW m−1K−2, which is a 75% improvement from the baseline composite (nominal composition of Ag2Se1). The success of this study provides opportunities to generalize the demonstrated active machine learning technique to accelerate the development and optimization of a wide range of material systems with reduced experimental trials.

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    Solution-processed semiconducting main-group chalcogenides (MMCs) have attracted increasing research interest for next-generation device technologies owing to their unique nanostructures and superior properties. To achieve the full potential of MMCs, the development of highly universal, scalable, and sustainable synthesis and processing methods of chalcogenide particles is thus becoming progressively more important. Here we studied scalable factors for the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) V–VI chalcogenide nanoplates (M 2 Q 3  : M = Sb, Bi; Q = Se, Te) and systematically investigated their colloidal behaviour and chemical stability. Based on a solvent engineering technique, we demonstrated scale-up syntheses of MMCs up to a 900% increase of batch size compared with conventional hydrazine-based gram-level syntheses, and such a scalable approach is highly applicable to various binary and ternary MMCs. Furthermore, we studied the stability of printable chalcogenide nanoparticle inks with several formulation factors including solvents, additives, and pH values, resulting in inks with high chemical stability (>4 months). As a proof of concept, we applied our solution-processed chalcogenide particles to multiple additive manufacturing methods, confirming the high printability and processability of MMC inks. The ability to combine the top-down designing freedom of additive manufacturing with bottom-up scalable synthesis of chalcogenide particles promises great opportunities for large-scale design and manufacturing of chalcogenide-based functional devices for broad application. 
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