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  1. Larochelle, H. ; Ranzato, M. ; Hadsell, R. ; Balcan, M. F. ; Lin, H. (Ed.)
    We propose a novel learning framework based on neural mean-field dynamics for inference and estimation problems of diffusion on networks. Our new framework is derived from the Mori-Zwanzig formalism to obtain an exact evolution of the node infection probabilities, which renders a delay differential equation with memory integral approximated by learnable time convolution operators, resulting in a highly structured and interpretable RNN. Directly using cascade data, our framework can jointly learn the structure of the diffusion network and the evolution of infection probabilities, which are cornerstone to important downstream applications such as influence maximization. Connections between parameter learning and optimalmore »control are also established. Empirical study shows that our approach is versatile and robust to variations of the underlying diffusion network models, and significantly outperform existing approaches in accuracy and efficiency on both synthetic and real-world data.« less
  2. We develop a unified level-bundle method, called accelerated constrained level-bundle (ACLB) algorithm, for solving constrained convex optimization problems. where the objective and constraint functions can be nonsmooth, weakly smooth, and/or smooth. ACLB employs Nesterov’s accelerated gradient technique, and hence retains the iteration complexity as that of existing bundle-type methods if the objective or one of the constraint functions is nonsmooth. More importantly, ACLB can significantly reduce iteration complexity when the objective and all constraints are (weakly) smooth. In addition, if the objective contains a nonsmooth component which can be written as a specific form of maximum, we show that themore »iteration complexity of this component can be much lower than that for general nonsmooth objective function. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.« less
  3. Representation Learning over graph structured data has received significant atten- tion recently due to its ubiquitous applicability. However, most advancements have been made in static graph settings while efforts for jointly learning dynamic of the graph and dynamic on the graph are still in an infant stage. Two fundamental questions arise in learning over dynamic graphs: (i) How to elegantly model dynamical processes over graphs? (ii) How to leverage such a model to effectively encode evolving graph information into low-dimensional representations? We present DyRep - a novel modeling framework for dynamic graphs that posits representation learning as a latent mediationmore »process bridging two observed processes namely – dynamics of the network (realized as topological evolution) and dynamics on the network (realized as activities between nodes). Concretely, we propose a two-time scale deep temporal point process model that captures the interleaved dynamics of the observed processes. This model is further parameterized by a temporal-attentive representation network that encodes temporally evolving structural information into node representations which in turn drives the nonlinear evolution of the observed graph dynamics. Our unified framework is trained using an efficient unsupervised procedure and has capability to generalize over unseen nodes. We demonstrate that DyRep outperforms state-of-the-art baselines for dynamic link prediction and time prediction tasks and present extensive qualitative insights into our framework.« less
  4. We propose a unified data-driven framework based on inverse optimal transport that can learn adaptive, nonlinear interaction cost function from noisy and incomplete empirical matching matrix and predict new matching in various matching contexts. We emphasize that the discrete optimal transport plays the role of a variational principle which gives rise to an optimization based framework for modeling the observed empirical matching data. Our formulation leads to a non-convex optimization problem which can be solved efficiently by an alternating optimization method. A key novel aspect of our formulation is the incorporation of marginal relaxation via regularized Wasserstein distance, significantly improvingmore »the robustness of the method in the face of noisy or missing empirical matching data. Our model falls into the category of prescriptive models, which not only predict potential future matching, but is also able to explain what leads to empirical matching and quantifies the impact of changes in matching factors. The proposed approach has wide applicability including predicting matching in online dating, labor market, college application and crowdsourcing. We back up our claims with numerical experiments on both synthetic data and real world data sets.« less
  5. Representation Learning over graph structured data has received significant attention recently due to its ubiquitous applicability. However, most advancements have been made in static graph settings while efforts for jointly learning dynamic of the graph and dynamic on the graph are still in an infant stage. Two fundamental questions arise in learning over dynamic graphs: (i) How to elegantly model dynamical processes over graphs? (ii) How to leverage such a model to effectively encode evolving graph information into low-dimensional representations? We present DyRep - a novel modeling framework for dynamic graphs that posits representation learning as a latent mediation processmore »bridging two observed processes namely – dynamics of the network (realized as topological evolution) and dynamics on the network (realized as activities between nodes). Concretely, we propose a two-time scale deep temporal point process model that captures the interleaved dynamics of the observed processes. This model is further parameterized by a temporal-attentive representation network that encodes temporally evolving structural information into node representations which in turn drives the nonlinear evolution of the observed graph dynamics. Our unified framework is trained using an efficient unsupervised procedure and has capability to generalize over unseen nodes. We demonstrate that DyRep outperforms state-of-the-art baselines for dynamic link prediction and time prediction tasks and present extensive qualitative insights into our framework.« less
  6. This paper proposes a new meta-learning method – named HARMLESS (HAwkes Relational Meta LEarning method for Short Sequences) for learning heterogeneous point process models from short event sequence data along with a relational network. Specifically, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian mixture Hawkes process model, which naturally incorporates the relational information among sequences into point process modeling. Compared with existing methods, our model can capture the underlying mixed-community patterns of the relational network, which simultaneously encourages knowledge sharing among sequences and facilitates adaptive learning for each individual sequence. We further propose an efficient stochastic variational meta expectation maximization algorithm that canmore »scale to large problems. Numerical experiments on both synthetic and real data show that HARMLESS outperforms existing methods in terms of predicting the future events.« less
  7. Optimal Transport (OT) naturally arises in many machine learning applications, yet the heavy computational burden limits its wide-spread uses. To address the scalability issue, we propose an implicit generative learning-based framework called SPOT (Scalable Push-forward of Optimal Transport). Specifically, we approximate the optimal transport plan by a pushforward of a reference distribution, and cast the optimal transport problem into a minimax problem. We then can solve OT problems efficiently using primal dual stochastic gradient-type algorithms. We also show that we can recover the density of the optimal transport plan using neural ordinary differential equations. Numerical experiments on both synthetic andmore »real datasets illustrate that SPOT is robust and has favorable convergence behavior. SPOT also allows us to efficiently sample from the optimal transport plan, which benefits downstream applications such as domain adaptation.« less
  8. Wasserstein distance plays increasingly important roles in machine learning, stochastic programming and image processing. Major efforts have been under way to address its high computational complexity, some leading to approximate or regularized variations such as Sinkhorn distance. However, as we will demonstrate, regularized variations with large regularization parameter will degradate the performance in several important machine learning applications, and small regularization parameter will fail due to numerical stability issues with existing algorithms. We address this challenge by developing an Inexact Proximal point method for exact Optimal Transport problem (IPOT) with the proximal operator approximately evaluated at each iteration using projectionsmore »to the probability simplex. The algorithm (a) converges to exact Wasserstein distance with theoretical guarantee and robust regularization parameter selection, (b) alleviates numerical stability issue, (c) has similar computational complexity to Sinkhorn, and (d) avoids the shrinking problem when apply to generative models. Furthermore, a new algorithm is proposed based on IPOT to obtain sharper Wasserstein barycenter.« less
  9. We consider the problem of representing collective behavior of large popula- tions and predicting the evolution of a population distribution over a discrete state space. A discrete time mean field game (MFG) is motivated as an interpretable model founded on game theory for understanding the aggregate effect of individ- ual actions and predicting the temporal evolution of population distributions. We achieve a synthesis of MFG and Markov decision processes (MDP) by showing that a special MFG is reducible to an MDP. This enables us to broaden the scope of mean field game theory and infer MFG models of large real-worldmore »systems via deep inverse reinforcement learning. Our method learns both the reward function and forward dynamics of an MFG from real data, and we report the first empirical test of a mean field game model of a real-world social media population.« less