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  1. With innovations in the field of gaze and eye tracking, a new concentration of research in the area of gaze-tracked systems and user interfaces has formed in the field of Extended Reality (XR). Eye trackers are being used to explore novel forms of spatial human–computer interaction, to understand human attention and behavior, and to test expectations and human responses. In this article, we review gaze interaction and eye tracking research related to XR that has been published since 1985, which includes a total of 215 publications. We outline efforts to apply eye gaze for direct interaction with virtual content andmore »design of attentive interfaces that adapt the presented content based on eye gaze behavior and discuss how eye gaze has been utilized to improve collaboration in XR. We outline trends and novel directions and discuss representative high-impact papers in detail.« less
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  4. Given the inherent visual affordances of Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) used for Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR), they have been actively used over many years as assistive and therapeutic devices for the people who are visually impaired. In this paper, we report on a scoping review of literature describing the use of HMDs in these areas. Our high-level objectives included detailed reviews and quantitative analyses of the literature, and the development of insights related to emerging trends and future research directions. Our review began with a pool of 1251 papers collected through a variety of mechanisms. Through a structured screening process,more »we identified 61 English research papers employing HMDs to enhance the visual sense of people with visual impairments for more detailed analyses. Our analyses reveal that there is an increasing amount of HMD-based research on visual assistance and therapy, and there are trends in the approaches associated with the research objectives. For example, AR is most often used for visual assistive purposes, whereas VR is used for therapeutic purposes. We report on eight existing survey papers, and present detailed analyses of the 61 research papers, looking at the mitigation objectives of the researchers (assistive versus therapeutic), the approaches used, the types of HMDs, the targeted visual conditions, and the inclusion of user studies. In addition to our detailed reviews and analyses of the various characteristics, we present observations related to apparent emerging trends and future research directions.« less
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