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  1. Foster, Ian ; Chard, Kyle ; Babuji, Yadu (Ed.)
    The historical motivation for serverless comes from internet-of-things, smartphone client server, and the objective of simplifying programming (no provisioning) and scale-down (pay-for-use). These applications are generally low-performance best-effort. However, the serverless model enables flexible software architectures suitable for a wide range of applications that demand high-performance and guaranteed performance. We have studied three such applications - scientific data streaming, virtual/augmented reality, and document annotation. We describe how each can be cast in a serverless software architecture and how the application performance requirements translate into high performance requirements (invocation rate, low and predictable latency) for the underlying serverless system implementation. Thesemore »applications can require invocations rates as high as millions per second (40 MHz) and latency deadlines below a microsecond (300 ns), and furthermore require performance predictability. All of these capabilities are far in excess of today's commercial serverless offerings and represent interesting research challenges.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 25, 2022
  2. Ardakanian, Omid ; Niesse, Astrid (Ed.)
    The rapid growth of datacenter (DC) loads can be leveraged to help meet renewable portfolio standard (RPS, renewable fraction)targets in power grids. The ability to manipulate DC loads over time(shifting) provides a mechanism to deal with temporal mismatch between non-dispatchable renewable generation (e.g. wind and solar) and overall grid loads, and this flexibility ultimately facilitates the absorption of renewables and grid decarbonization. To this end, we study DC-grid coupling models, exploring their impact on grid dispatch, renewable absorption, power prices, and carbon emissions.With a detailed model of grid dispatch, generation, topology, and loads, we consider three coupling approaches: fixed, datacenter-localmore »optimization (online dynamic programming), and grid-wide optimization (optimal power flow). Results show that understanding the effects of dynamic DC load management requires studies that model the dynamics of both load and power grid. Dynamic DC-grid coupling can produce large improvements: (1) reduce grid dispatch cost (-3%), (2) increase grid renewable fraction (+1.58%), and (3) reduce DC power cost (-16.9%).It also has negative effects: (1) increase cost for both DCs and non-DC customers, (2) differentially increase prices for non-DC customers, and (3) create large power-level changes that may harm DC productivity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2022
  3. Cirne, Walfredo ; Rodrigo, Gonzalo P. ; Klusáček, Dalibor (Ed.)
    Datacenter scheduling research often assumes resources as a constant quantity, but increasingly external factors shape capacity dynamically, and beyond the control of an operator. Based on emerging examples, we define a new, open research challenge: the variable capacity resource scheduling problem. The objective here is effective resource utilization despite sudden, perhaps large, changes in the available resources. We define the problem, key dimensions of resource capacity variation, and give specific examples that arise from the natural world (carboncontent, power price, datacenter cooling, and more). Key dimensions of the resource capacity variation include dynamic range, frequency, and structure. With these dimensions,more »an empirical trace can be characterized, abstracting it from the many possible important real-world generators of variation. Resource capacity variation can arise from many causes including weather, market prices, renewable energy, carbon emission targets, and internal dynamic power management constraints. We give examples of three different sources of variable capacity. Finally, we show variable resource capacity presents new scheduling challenges. We show how variation can cause significant performance degradation in existing schedulers, with up to 60% goodput reduction. Further, initial results also show intelligent scheduling techniques can be helpful. These insights show the promise and opportunity for future scheduling studies on resource volatility.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 21, 2022
  4. Cameras are deployed at scale with the purpose of searching and tracking objects of interest (e.g., a suspected person) through the camera network on live videos. Such cross-camera analytics is data and compute intensive, whose costs grow with the number of cameras and time. We present Spatula, a cost-efficient system that enables scaling cross-camera analytics on edge compute boxes to large camera networks by leveraging the spatial and temporal cross-camera correlations. While such correlations have been used in computer vision community, Spatula uses them to drastically reduce the communication and computation costs by pruning search space of a query identitymore »(e.g., ignoring frames not correlated with the query identity’s current position). Spatula provides the first system substrate on which cross-camera analytics applications can be built to efficiently harness the cross-camera correlations that are abundant in large camera deployments. Spatula reduces compute load by $8.3\times$ on an 8-camera dataset, and by $23\times-86\times$ on two datasets with hundreds of cameras (simulated from real vehicle/pedestrian traces). We have also implemented Spatula on a testbed of 5 AWS DeepLens cameras.« less
  5. Generation type of power plant (e.g. steam, wind) is an important attribute in power grid and energy market studies such as bidding strategy, audit of generation mix, and accounting for load- generation matching. Recently, regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and independent system operators (ISOs) are increasingly redacting a wide range of grid and market data attributes to protect their participants’ business interests. Lack of this information can prevent important power grid research. We propose techniques to infer power plant generation types based on publicly-available market data. We develop and evaluate these techniques on data available from the Midcontinent Independent System Operatormore »(MISO). Evaluation shows successful classification of power plants, achieving 100% precision and 99.5% recall for wind plants, and 91.7% overall accuracy. On the basis of generated power, our classification shows 100% precision and 99.8% recall for wind plants and 93.2% overall accuracy. Our ultimate goal is to generalize to a wide range of RTOs/ISOs. We explore three feature types (bid pattern, capability, and opera- tion), and evaluate their classification value for MISO. We also assess applicability to other RTOs/ISOs based on available market data. These studies inform the efficacy of the features for generation-type inference in other RTOs/ISOs.« less
  6. Today's serverless provides "function-as-a-service" with dynamic scaling and fine-grained resource charging, enabling new cloud applications. Serverless functions are invoked as a best-effort service. We propose an extension to serverless, called real-time serverless that provides an invocation rate guarantee, a service-level objective (SLO) specified by the application, and delivered by the underlying implementation. Real-time serverless allows applications to guarantee real-time performance. We study real-time serverless behavior analytically and empirically to characterize its ability to support bursty, real-time cloud and edge applications efficiently. Finally, we use a case study, traffic monitoring, to illustrate the use and benefits of real-time serverless, on ourmore »prototype implementation.« less