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  1. Abstract

    Moiré superlattices created by the twisted stacking of two-dimensional crystals can host electronic bands with flat energy dispersion in which enhanced interactions promote correlated electron states. The twisted double bilayer graphene (TDBG), where two Bernal bilayer graphene are stacked with a twist angle, is such a moiré system with tunable flat bands. Here, we use gate-tuned scanning tunneling spectroscopy to directly demonstrate the tunability of the band structure of TDBG with an electric field and to show spectroscopic signatures of electronic correlations and topology for its flat band. Our spectroscopic experiments are in agreement with a continuum model of TDBG band structure and reveal signatures of a correlated insulator gap at partial filling of its isolated flat band. The topological properties of this flat band are probed with the application of a magnetic field, which leads to valley polarization and the splitting of Chern bands with a large effective g-factor.

  2. We analyse the pressure-driven flow of the Oldroyd-B fluid in slowly varying arbitrarily shaped, narrow channels and present a theoretical framework for calculating the relationship between the flow rate $q$ and pressure drop $\Delta p$ . We first identify the characteristic scales and dimensionless parameters governing the flow in the lubrication limit. Employing a perturbation expansion in powers of the Deborah number ( $De$ ), we provide analytical expressions for the velocity, stress and the $q$ – $\Delta p$ relation in the weakly viscoelastic limit up to $O(De^2)$ . Furthermore, we exploit the reciprocal theorem derived by Boyko $\&$ Stone ( Phys. Rev. Fluids , vol. 6, 2021, L081301) to obtain the $q$ – $\Delta p$ relation at the next order, $O(De^3)$ , using only the velocity and stress fields at the previous orders. We validate our analytical results with two-dimensional numerical simulations in the case of a hyperbolic, symmetric contracting channel and find excellent agreement. While the velocity remains approximately Newtonian in the weakly viscoelastic limit (i.e. the theorem of Tanner and Pipkin), we reveal that the pressure drop strongly depends on the viscoelastic effects and decreases with $De$ . We elucidate the relative importance of different terms inmore »the momentum equation contributing to the pressure drop along the symmetry line and identify that a pressure drop reduction for narrow contracting geometries is primarily due to gradients in the viscoelastic shear stresses. We further show that, although for narrow geometries the viscoelastic axial stresses are negligible along the symmetry line, they are comparable or larger than shear stresses in the rest of the domain.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 10, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. Quantum metrology enables some of the most precise measurements. In the life sciences, diamond-based quantum sensing has led to a new class of biophysical sensors and diagnostic devices that are being investigated as a platform for cancer screening and ultrasensitive immunoassays. However, a broader application in the life sciences based on nanoscale NMR spectroscopy has been hampered by the need to interface highly sensitive quantum bit (qubit) sensors with their biological targets. Here, we demonstrate an approach that combines quantum engineering with single-molecule biophysics to immobilize individual proteins and DNA molecules on the surface of a bulk diamond crystal that hosts coherent nitrogen vacancy qubit sensors. Our thin (sub–5 nm) functionalization architecture provides precise control over the biomolecule adsorption density and results in near-surface qubit coherence approaching 100 μs. The developed architecture remains chemically stable under physiological conditions for over 5 d, making our technique compatible with most biophysical and biomedical applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2023
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 27, 2023
  8. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is used to image valley ordering in graphene in the presence of a magnetic field.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 21, 2023
  9. We report an experimental study of the shear-induced migration of flexible fibers in suspensions confined between two parallel plates. Non-Brownian fiber suspensions are imaged in a rheo-microscopy setup, where the top and the bottom plates counter-rotate and create a Couette flow. Initially, the fibers are near the bottom plate due to sedimentation. Under shear, the fibers move with the flow and migrate towards the center plane between the two walls. Statistical properties of the fibers, such as the mean values of the positions, orientations, and end-to-end lengths of the fibers, are used to characterize the behaviors of the fibers. A dimensionless parameter Λ eff , which compares the hydrodynamic shear stress and the fiber stiffness, is used to analyze the effective flexibility of the fibers. The observations show that the fibers that are more likely to bend exhibit faster migration. As Λ eff increases (softer fibers and stronger shear stresses), the fibers tend to align in the flow direction and the motions of the fibers transition from tumbling and rolling to bending. The bending fibers drift away from the walls to the center plane. Further increasing Λ eff leads to more coiled fiber shapes, and the bending is more frequentmore »and with larger magnitudes, which leads to more rapid migration towards the center. Different behaviors of the fibers are quantified with Λ eff , and the structures and the dynamics of the fibers are correlated with the migration.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 19, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 15, 2023