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  1. NA (Ed.)

    Observation of lepton number violation would represent a groundbreaking discovery with profound consequences for fundamental physics and as such, it has motivated an extensive experimental program searching for neutrinoless double beta decay. However, the violation of lepton number can be also tested by a variety of other observables. We focus on the possibilities of probing this fundamental symmetry within the framework of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) beyond the minimal dimension-5. Specifically, we study the bounds on ∆L= 2 dimension-7 effective operators beyond the electron flavor imposed by all relevant low-energy observables and confront them with derived high-energy collider limits. We also discuss how the synergy of the analyzed multi-frontier observables can play a crucial role in distinguishing among different dimension-7 SMEFT operators.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Multi-messenger astrophysics has produced a wealth of data with much more to come in the future. This enormous data set will reveal new insights into the physics of core-collapse supernovae, neutron star mergers, and many other objects where it is actually possible, if not probable, that new physics is in operation. To tease out different possibilities, we will need to analyze signals from photons, neutrinos, gravitational waves, and chemical elements. This task is made all the more difficult when it is necessary to evolve the neutrino component of the radiation field and associated quantum-mechanical property of flavor in order to model the astrophysical system of interest—a numerical challenge that has not been addressed to this day. In this work, we take a step in this direction by adopting the technique of angular-integrated moments with a truncated tower of dynamical equations and a closure, convolving the flavor-transformation with spatial transport to evolve the neutrino radiation quantum field. We show that moments capture the dynamical features of fast flavor instabilities in a variety of systems, although our technique is by no means a universal blueprint for solving fast flavor transformation. To evaluate the effectiveness of our moment results, we compare to a more precise particle-in-cell method. Based on our results, we propose areas for improvement and application to complementary techniques in the future.

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  3. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    We presentνDoBe, a Python tool for the computation of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) rates in terms of lepton-number-violating operators in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). The tool can be used for automated calculations of 0νββrates, electron spectra and angular correlations for all isotopes of experimental interest, for lepton-number-violating operators up to and including dimension 9. The tool takes care of renormalization-group running to lower energies and provides the matching to the low-energy effective field theory and, at lower scales, to a chiral effective field theory description of 0νββrates. The user can specify different sets of nuclear matrix elements from various many-body methods and hadronic low-energy constants. The tool can be used to quickly generate analytical and numerical expressions for 0νββrates and to generate a large variety of plots. In this work, we provide examples of possible use along with a detailed code documentation. The code can be accessed through:


    Online User-Interface:

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    As LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA enters its fourth observing run, a new opportunity to search for electromagnetic counterparts of compact object mergers will also begin. The light curves and spectra from the first “kilonova” associated with a binary neutron star merger (NSM) suggests that these sites are hosts of the rapid neutron capture (“r”) process. However, it is unknown just how robust elemental production can be in mergers. Identifying signposts of the production of particular nuclei is critical for fully understanding merger-driven heavy-element synthesis. In this study, we investigate the properties of very neutron-rich nuclei for which superheavy elements (Z≥ 104) can be produced in NSMs and whether they can similarly imprint a unique signature on kilonova light-curve evolution. A superheavy-element signature in kilonovae represents a route to establishing a lower limit on heavy-element production in NSMs as well as possibly being the first evidence of superheavy-element synthesis in nature. Favorable NSM conditions yield a mass fraction of superheavy elementsXZ≥104≈ 3 × 10−2at 7.5 hr post-merger. With this mass fraction of superheavy elements, we find that the component of kilonova light curves possibly containing superheavy elements may appear similar to those arising from lanthanide-poor ejecta. Therefore, photometric characterizations of superheavy-element rich kilonova may possibly misidentify them as lanthanide-poor events.

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    The future detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from a Galactic core-collapse supernova will provide information on the physics inside protoneutron stars (PNS). In this work, we apply three different classification methods for the PNS non-radial oscillation modes: Cowling classification, Generalized Cowling Nomenclature (GCN), and a classification based on modal properties (CBMP). Using PNS models from 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae, we find that in the early stages of the PNS evolution, typically 0.4 s after the bounce, the Cowling classification is inconsistent, but the GCN and the CBMP provide complementary information that helps to understand the evolution of the modes. In the GCN, we note several avoided crossings as the mode frequencies evolve at early times, while the CBMP tracks the modes across the avoided crossings. We verify that the strongest emission of GWs by the PNS corresponds to the f mode in the GCN, indicating that the mode trapping region alternates between the core and the envelope at each avoided crossing. At later times, approximately 0.4 s after the bounce, the three classification methods present a similar description of the mode spectrum. We use our results to test universal relations for the PNS modes according to their classification and find that the behaviour of the universal relations for f and p modes is remarkably simple in the CBMP.

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  6. Abstract

    With the most trans-iron elements detected of any star outside the solar system, HD 222925 represents the most complete chemical inventory among metal-poor stars enhanced with elements made by the rapid neutron capture (“r”) process. As such, HD 222925 may be a new “template” for the observationalr-process, where before the (much higher-metallicity) solarr-process residuals were used. In this work, we test under which conditions a single site accounts for the entire elementalr-process abundance pattern of HD 222925. We found that several of our tests—with the single exception of the black hole–neutron star merger case—challenge the single-site assumption by producing an ejecta distribution that is highly constrained, in disagreement with simulation predictions. However, we found that ejecta distributions that are more in line with simulations can be obtained under the condition that the nuclear data near the secondr-process peak are changed. Therefore, for HD 222925 to be a canonicalr-process template likely as a product of a single astrophysical source, the nuclear data need to be reevaluated. The new elemental abundance pattern of HD 222925—including the abundances obtained from space-based, ultraviolet (UV) data—call for a deeper understanding of both astrophysicalr-process sites and nuclear data. Similar UV observations of additionalr-process–enhanced stars will be required to determine whether the elemental abundance pattern of HD 222925 is indeed a canonical template (or an outlier) for ther-process at low metallicity.

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  7. Abstract

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the main mechanisms whereby elements heavier than iron are synthesized, and is entirely responsible for the natural production of the actinides. Kilonova emissions are modeled as being largely powered by the radioactive decay of species synthesized via ther-process. Given that ther-process occurs far from nuclear stability, unmeasured beta-decay rates play an essential role in setting the timescale for ther-process. In an effort to better understand the sensitivity of kilonova modeling to different theoretical global beta-decay descriptions, we incorporate these into nucleosynthesis calculations. We compare the results of these calculations and highlight differences in kilonova nuclear energy generation and light-curve predictions, as well as final abundances and their implications for nuclear cosmochronometry. We investigate scenarios where differences in beta-decay rates are responsible for increased nuclear heating on timescales of days that propagates into a significantly increased average bolometric luminosity between 1 and 10 days post-merger. We identify key nuclei, both measured and unmeasured, whose decay rates directly impact nuclear heating generation on timescales responsible for light-curve evolution. We also find that uncertainties in beta-decay rates significantly impact age estimates from cosmochronometry.

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  8. Abstract

    We report on the effects of strong magnetic fields on neutrino emission in the modified Urca process. We show that the effect of Landau levels on the various Urca pairs affects the neutrino emission spectrum and leads to an angular asymmetry in the neutrino emission. For low magnetic fields, the Landau levels have almost no effect on the cooling. However, as the field strength increases, the electron chemical potential increases resulting in a lower density at which Urca pairs can exist. For intermediate field strength, there is an interesting interference between the Landau level distribution and the Fermi distribution. For high enough field strength, the entire electron energy spectrum is eventually confined to a single Landau level producing dramatic spikes in the emission spectrum.

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  9. Abstract

    We present the second data release of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star (BNS) merger simulations performed by the Computational Relativity (CoRe) collaboration. The current database consists of 254 different BNS configurations and a total of 590 individual numerical-relativity simulations using various grid resolutions. The released waveform data contain the strain and the Weyl curvature multipoles up to=m=4. They span a significant portion of the mass, mass-ratio, spin and eccentricity parameter space and include targeted configurations to the events GW170817 and GW190425.CoResimulations are performed with 18 different equations of state, seven of which are finite temperature models, and three of which account for non-hadronic degrees of freedom. About half of the released data are computed with high-order hydrodynamics schemes for tens of orbits to merger; the other half is computed with advanced microphysics. We showcase a standard waveform error analysis and discuss the accuracy of the database in terms of faithfulness. We present ready-to-use fitting formulas for equation of state-insensitive relations at merger (e.g. merger frequency), luminosity peak, and post-merger spectrum.

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  10. Abstract

    Highly magnetized neutron stars are promising candidates to explain some of the most peculiar astronomical phenomena, for instance, fast radio bursts, gamma-ray bursts, and superluminous supernovae. Pulsations of these highly magnetized neutron stars are also speculated to produce detectable gravitational waves. In addition, pulsations are important probes of the structure and equation of state of the neutron stars. The major challenge in studying the pulsations of highly magnetized neutron stars is the demanding numerical cost of consistently solving the nonlinear Einstein and Maxwell equations under minimum assumptions. With the recent breakthroughs in numerical solvers, we investigate pulsation modes of non-rotating neutron stars which harbour strong purely toroidal magnetic fields of 1015−17G through two-dimensional axisymmetric general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations. We show that stellar oscillations are insensitive to magnetization effects until the magnetic to binding energy ratio goes beyond 10%, where the pulsation mode frequencies are strongly suppressed. We further show that this is the direct consequence of the decrease in stellar compactness when the extreme magnetic fields introduce strong deformations of the neutron stars.

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