- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Materials Horizons
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1707 to 1716
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Two-dimensional (2D) organic–inorganic hybrid halide perovskites exhibit unique properties, such as long charge carrier lifetimes, high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, and great tolerance to defects. Over the last several decades tremendous progress has occurred in the development of 2D layered halide perovskite semiconductor materials and devices. Chemical functionalization of 2D halide perovskites is an effective approach for tuning their electronic properties. A large amount of effort has been made in compositional engineering of the cations and anions in the perovskite lattice. However, few efforts have incorporated rationally designed semiconducting organic moieties into these systems to alter the overall chemical and optoelectronic properties of 2D perovskites. In fact, incorporation of large conjugated organic groups in the spatially confined inorganic perovskite matrix was found to be challenging, and this synthetic challenge hinders a deeper understanding of the materials’ structure–property relationships. Recently, exciting progress has been made regarding the molecular design, optical characterization, and device fabrication of novel 2D halide perovskite materials that incorporate functional organic semiconducting building blocks. In this article, we provide a timely review regarding this recent progress. Moreover, we discuss successes and current challenges regarding the synthesis, characterization, and device applications of such hybrid materials and provide a perspective onmore »
Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite materials, such as CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , exhibit substantial potential in a variety of optoelectronic applications. Nevertheless, the interplay between the photoinduced excitations and iodine Frenkel defects which are abundant in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 films remains poorly understood. Here we study the light-triggered electronic and excitonic properties in the presence of iodine Frenkel defects in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 by using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT approaches, the latter of which treats electron–hole and electron–nucleus interactions on the same footing. For isolated Frenkel defects, electrons are trapped close to the iodine vacancies and the electron–hole correlation brings the holes in close vicinity to the electrons, yielding tightly bound polaronic excitons. However, in the presence of multiple interactive Frenkel defects, the holes are pulled out from an electron–hole Coulomb well by the iodine interstitials, leading to spatially separated electron–hole pairs. The X-ray photoelectron spectra are then simulated, unravelling the light-triggered charge transfer induced by Frenkel defects at the atomistic level. We also find that the energy and spatial distributions of polaronic excitons at the Frenkel defects can be controlled by the dynamical rotation of organicmore »
Origin of layered perovskite device efficiencies revealed by multidimensional time-of-flight spectroscopy
Mixtures of layered perovskite quantum wells with different sizes form prototypical light-harvesting antenna structures in solution-processed films. Gradients in the bandgaps and energy levels are established by concentrating the smallest and largest quantum wells near opposing electrodes in photovoltaic devices. Whereas short-range energy and charge carrier funneling behaviors have been observed in layered perovskites, our recent work suggests that such light-harvesting processes do not assist long-range charge transport due to carrier trapping at interfaces between quantum wells and interstitial organic spacer molecules. Here, we apply a two-pulse time-of-flight technique to a family of layered perovskite systems to explore the effects that interstitial organic molecules have on charge carrier dynamics. In these experiments, the first laser pulse initiates carrier drift within the active layer of a photovoltaic device, whereas the second pulse probes the transient concentrations of photoexcited carriers as they approach the electrodes. The instantaneous drift velocities determined with this method suggest that the rates of trap-induced carrier deceleration increase with the concentrations of organic spacer cations. Overall, our experimental results and model calculations suggest that the layered perovskite device efficiencies primarily reflect the dynamics of carrier trapping at interfaces between quantum wells and interstitial organic phases.
Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites enable the production of semiconductor devices at low cost from solution processing. Their remarkable structural versatility offers unique and diverse physical properties, leading to their incorporation in a wide variety of applications. One major limitation is the significant negative environmental impact associated with developing perovskite devices; common solvents used in perovskite film deposition are highly toxic, which represents a barrier to the transfer to an industrial setting of the perovskite technology. Here we report on the fabrication and characterisation of the first laser printed organic–inorganic perovskite films. The method is solvent-free, scalable and low-cost, allowing fast deposition over large areas and with minimal material waste. We show that the laser printed perovskite films are crystalline and exhibit electrical properties on par with single crystals, despite the fact that the microstructure consists of randomly oriented crystallites. The toner used during printing is designed for optimal film transfer and the vertical separation of its components results in a segregation of the perovskite film in the middle of the stack, therefore also encapsulating the perovskite layer, a process that yields a remarkable resilience to defect formation upon environmental exposure.
In silico prediction of annihilators for triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion via auxiliary-field quantum Monte CarloThe energy of the lowest-lying triplet state (T1) relative to the ground and first-excited singlet states (S0, S1) plays a critical role in optical multiexcitonic processes of organic chromophores. Focusing on triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion, the S0 to T1 energy gap, known as the triplet energy, is difficult to measure experimentally for most molecules of interest. Ab initio predictions can provide a useful alternative, however low-scaling electronic structure methods such as the Kohn–Sham and time-dependent variants of Density Functional Theory (DFT) rely heavily on the fraction of exact exchange chosen for a given functional, and tend to be unreliable when strong electronic correlation is present. Here, we use auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC), a scalable electronic structure method capable of accurately describing even strongly correlated molecules, to predict the triplet energies for a series of candidate annihilators for TTA upconversion, including 9,10 substituted anthracenes and substituted benzothiadiazole (BTD) and benzoselenodiazole (BSeD) compounds. We compare our results to predictions from a number of commonly used DFT functionals, as well as DLPNO-CCSD(T 0 ), a localized approximation to coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples. Together with S1 estimates from absorption/emission spectra, which are well-reproduced by TD-DFT calculations employing the range-correctedmore »