This paper focuses on showing timemessage tradeoffs in distributed algorithms for fundamental problems such as leader election, broadcast, spanning tree (ST), minimum spanning tree (MST), minimum cut, and many graph verification problems. We consider the synchronous CONGEST distributed computing model and assume that each node has initial knowledge of itself and the identifiers of its neighbors  the socalled KT_1 model  a wellstudied model that also naturally arises in many applications. Recently, it has been established that one can obtain (almost) singularly optimal algorithms, i.e., algorithms that have simultaneously optimal time and message complexity (up to polylogarithmic factors), for many fundamental problems in the standard KT_0 model (where nodes have only local knowledge of themselves and not their neighbors). The situation is less clear in the KT_1 model. In this paper, we present several new distributed algorithms in the KT_1 model that trade off between time and message complexity. Our distributed algorithms are based on a uniform and general approach which involves constructing a sparsified spanning subgraph of the original graph  called a danner  that trades off the number of edges with the diameter of the sparsifier. In particular, a key ingredient of our approach is amore »
Distributed MST: A Smoothed Analysis
We study smoothed analysis of distributed graph algorithms, focusing on the fundamental minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. With the goal of studying the time complexity of distributed MST as a function of the "perturbation" of the input graph, we posit a smoothing model that is parameterized by a smoothing parameter 0 ≤ ϵ(n) ≤ 1 which controls the amount of random edges that can be added to an input graph G per round. Informally, ϵ(n) is the probability (typically a small function of n, e.g., n¼) that a random edge can be added to a node per round. The added random edges, once they are added, can be used (only) for communication.
We show upper and lower bounds on the time complexity of distributed MST in the above smoothing model. We present a distributed algorithm that, with high probability, 1 computes an MST and runs in Õ(min{1/√ϵ(n)2O(√log n), D+ √n}) rounds2 where ϵ is the smoothing parameter, D is the network diameter and n is the network size.
To complement our upper bound, we also show a lower bound of Ω(min{1/√ϵ(n), D + √n}). We note that the upper and lower bounds essentially match except for a multiplicative 2O(√log n) polylog(n) factor.
Our more »
 Publication Date:
 NSFPAR ID:
 10169205
 Journal Name:
 ICDCN 2020: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking
 Page Range or eLocationID:
 1 to 10
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
More Like this


The Sparsest Cut is a fundamental optimization problem that have been extensively studied. For planar inputs the problem is in P and can be solved in Õ(n 3 ) time if all vertex weights are 1. Despite a significant amount of effort, the best algorithms date back to the early 90’s and can only achieve O(log n)approximation in Õ(n) time or 3.5approximation in Õ(n 2 ) time [Rao, STOC92]. Our main result is an Ω(n 2−ε ) lower bound for Sparsest Cut even in planar graphs with unit vertex weights, under the (min, +)Convolution conjecture, showing that approxima tions are inevitable in the nearlinear time regime. To complement the lower bound, we provide a 3.3approximation in nearlinear time, improving upon the 25year old result of Rao in both time and accuracy. We also show that our lower bound is not far from optimal by observing an exact algorithm with running time Õ(n 5/2 ) improving upon the Õ(n 3 ) algorithm of Park and Phillips [STOC93]. Our lower bound accomplishes a repeatedly raised challenge by being the first finegrained lower bound for a natural planar graph problem in P. Building on our construction we prove nearquadratic lower bounds under SETHmore »

We study the communication cost (or message complexity) of fundamental distributed symmetry breaking problems, namely, coloring and MIS. While significant progress has been made in understanding and improving the running time of such problems, much less is known about the message complexity of these problems. In fact, all known algorithms need at least Ω(m) communication for these problems, where m is the number of edges in the graph. We addressthe following question in this paper: can we solve problems such as coloring and MIS using sublinear, i.e., o(m) communication, and if sounder what conditions? In a classical result, Awerbuch, Goldreich, Peleg, and Vainish [JACM 1990] showed that fundamental global problems such asbroadcast and spanning tree construction require at least o(m) messages in the KT1 Congest model (i.e., Congest model in which nodes have initial knowledge of the neighbors' ID's) when algorithms are restricted to be comparisonbased (i.e., algorithms inwhich node ID's can only be compared). Thirty five years after this result, King, Kutten, and Thorup [PODC 2015] showed that onecan solve the above problems using Õ(n) messages (n is the number of nodes in the graph) in Õ(n) rounds in the KT1 Congest model if noncomparisonbased algorithms are permitted. Anmore »

We consider the communication complexity of a number of distributed optimization problems. We start with the problem of solving a linear system. Suppose there is a coordinator together with s servers P1, …, Ps, the ith of which holds a subset A(i) x = b(i) of ni constraints of a linear system in d variables, and the coordinator would like to output an x ϵ ℝd for which A(i) x = b(i) for i = 1, …, s. We assume each coefficient of each constraint is specified using L bits. We first resolve the randomized and deterministic communication complexity in the pointtopoint model of communication, showing it is (d2 L + sd) and (sd2L), respectively. We obtain similar results for the blackboard communication model. As a result of independent interest, we show the probability a random matrix with integer entries in {–2L, …, 2L} is invertible is 1–2−Θ(dL), whereas previously only 1 – 2−Θ(d) was known. When there is no solution to the linear system, a natural alternative is to find the solution minimizing the ℓp loss, which is the ℓp regression problem. While this problem has been studied, we give improved upper or lower bounds for every value ofmore »

We present a sublinear time algorithm that allows one to sample multiple edges from a distribution that is pointwise ϵclose to the uniform distribution, in an amortizedefficient fashion. We consider the adjacency list query model, where access to a graph G is given via degree and neighbor queries. The problem of sampling a single edge in this model has been raised by Eden and Rosenbaum (SOSA 18). Let n and m denote the number of vertices and edges of G, respectively. Eden and Rosenbaum provided upper and lower bounds of Θ∗(n/ √ m) for sampling a single edge in general graphs (where O ∗(·) suppresses poly(1/ϵ) and poly(log n) dependencies). We ask whether the query complexity lower bound for sampling a single edge can be circumvented when multiple samples are required. That is, can we get an improved amortized persample cost if we allow a preprocessing phase? We answer in the affirmative. We present an algorithm that, if one knows the number of required samples q in advance, has an overall cost that is sublinear in q, namely, O∗(√ q · (n/ √ m)), which is strictly preferable to O∗(q · (n/ √ m)) cost resulting from q invocations ofmore »