- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Cerebral Cortex
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Shorter Duration and Lower Quality Sleep Have Widespread Detrimental Effects on Developing Functional Brain Networks in Early AdolescenceAbstract Sleep is critical for cognitive health, especially during complex developmental periods such as adolescence. However, its effects on maturating brain networks that support cognitive function are only partially understood. We investigated the impact of shorter duration and reduced quality sleep, common stressors during development, on functional network properties in early adolescence—a period of significant neural maturation, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from 5566 children (median age = 120.0 months; 52.1% females) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort. Decreased sleep duration, increased sleep latency, frequent waking up at night, and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms were associated with lower topological efficiency, flexibility, and robustness of visual, sensorimotor, attention, fronto-parietal control, default-mode and/or limbic networks, and with aberrant changes in the thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebellum (P < 0.05). These widespread effects, many of which were body mass index-independent, suggest that unhealthy sleep in early adolescence may impair neural information processing and integration across incompletely developed networks, potentially leading to deficits in their cognitive correlates, including attention, reward, emotion processing and regulation, memory, and executive control. Shorter sleep duration, frequent snoring, difficulty waking up, and daytime sleepiness had additional detrimental network effects in nonwhite participants, indicating racial disparities in the influence of sleep metrics.
Widespread attenuating changes in brain connectivity associated with the general factor of psychopathology in 9- and 10-year olds
Convergent research identifies a general factor (“P factor”) that confers transdiagnostic risk for psychopathology. Large-scale networks are key organizational units of the human brain. However, studies of altered network connectivity patterns associated with the P factor are limited, especially in early adolescence when most mental disorders are first emerging. We studied 11,875 9- and 10-year olds from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, of whom 6593 had high-quality resting-state scans. Network contingency analysis was used to identify altered interconnections associated with the P factor among 16 large-scale networks. These connectivity changes were then further characterized with quadrant analysis that quantified the directionality of P factor effects in relation to neurotypical patterns of positive versus negative connectivity across connections. The results showed that the P factor was associated with altered connectivity across 28 network cells (i.e., sets of connections linking pairs of networks);
pPERMUTATIONvalues < 0.05 FDR-corrected for multiple comparisons. Higher P factor scores were associated with hypoconnectivity within default network and hyperconnectivity between default network and multiple control networks. Among connections within these 28 significant cells, the P factor was predominantly associated with “attenuating” effects (67%; pPERMUTATION < 0.0002), i.e., reduced connectivity at neurotypically positive connections and increased connectivity at neurotypically negative connections.more »
Abstract Context.Large multi-site neuroimaging datasets have significantly advanced our quest to understand brain-behavior relationships and to develop biomarkers of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, such data collections come at a cost, as the inevitable differences across samples may lead to biased or erroneous conclusions. Objective.We aim to validate the estimation of individual brain network dynamics fingerprints and appraise sources of variability in large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) datasets by providing a novel point of view based on data-driven dynamical models. Approach.Previous work has investigated this critical issue in terms of effects on static measures, such as functional connectivity and brain parcellations. Here, we utilize dynamical models (hidden Markov models—HMM) to examine how diverse scanning factors in multi-site fMRI recordings affect our ability to infer the brain’s spatiotemporal wandering between large-scale networks of activity. Specifically, we leverage a stable HMM trained on the Human Connectome Project (homogeneous) dataset, which we then apply to an heterogeneous dataset of traveling subjects scanned under a multitude of conditions. Main Results.Building upon this premise, we first replicate previous work on the emergence of non-random sequences of brain states. We next highlight how these time-varying brain activity patterns are robust subject-specific fingerprints. Finally, we suggest these fingerprintsmore »
Independent Component and Graph Theory Analyses Reveal Normalized Brain Networks on Resting‐State Functional
MRIAfter Working Memory Training in People With HIV Background
Cognitive training may partially reverse cognitive deficits in people with HIV (PWH). Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies demonstrate that working memory training (WMT) alters brain activity during working memory tasks, but its effects on resting brain network organization remain unknown.
To test whether WMT affects PWH brain functional connectivity in resting‐state fMRI (rsfMRI).
A total of 53 PWH (ages 50.7 ± 1.5 years, two women) and 53
HIV‐seronegative controls ( SN, ages 49.5 ± 1.6 years, six women). Field Strength/Sequence
Axial single‐shot gradient‐echo echo‐planar imaging at 3.0 T was performed at baseline (TL1), at 1‐month (TL2), and at 6‐months (TL3), after WMT.
All participants had rsfMRI and clinical assessments (including neuropsychological tests) at TL1 before randomization to Cogmed WMT (adaptive training,
n= 58: 28 PWH, 30 SN; nonadaptive training, n= 48: 25 PWH, 23 SN), 25 sessions over 5–8 weeks. All assessments were repeated at TL2 and at TL3. The functional connectivity estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) or graph theory (GT) metrics (eigenvector centrality, etc.) for different link densities (LDs) were compared between PWH and SN groups at TL1 and TL2. Statistical Tests
Two‐way analyses of variance (ANOVA) on GT metrics and two‐sample
t‐tests on FC or GT metrics were performed. Cognitive (eg memory) measures were correlated with eigenvector centrality (eCent) usingmore » Results
The ventral default mode network (vDMN) eCent differed between PWH and SN groups at TL1 but not at TL2 (
P= 0.28). In PWH, vDMN eCent changes significantly correlated with changes in the memory ability in PWH ( r= −0.62 at LD = 50%) and vDMN eCent before training significantly correlated with memory performance changes ( r= 0.53 at LD = 50%). Data Conclusion
ICA and GT analyses showed that adaptive WMT normalized graph properties of the vDMN in PWH.
Inferring excitation-inhibition dynamics using a maximum entropy model unifying brain structure and functionAbstract Neural activity coordinated across different scales from neuronal circuits to large-scale brain networks gives rise to complex cognitive functions. Bridging the gap between micro- and macro-scale processes, we present a novel framework based on the maximum entropy model to infer a hybrid resting state structural connectome, representing functional interactions constrained by structural connectivity. We demonstrate that the structurally informed network outperforms the unconstrained model in simulating brain dynamics; wherein by constraining the inference model with the network structure we may improve the estimation of pairwise BOLD signal interactions. Further, we simulate brain network dynamics using Monte Carlo simulations with the new hybrid connectome to probe connectome-level differences in excitation-inhibition balance between apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4 carriers and noncarriers. Our results reveal sex differences among APOE-ε4 carriers in functional dynamics at criticality; specifically, female carriers appear to exhibit a lower tolerance to network disruptions resulting from increased excitatory interactions. In sum, the new multimodal network explored here enables analysis of brain dynamics through the integration of structure and function, providing insight into the complex interactions underlying neural activity such as the balance of excitation and inhibition.