Title: Quantum isotropy and the reduction of dynamics in Bianchi I

Abstract The authors previously introduced a diffeomorphism-invariant definition of a homogeneous and isotropic sector of loop quantum gravity (LQG), along with a program to embed loop quantum cosmology (LQC) into it. The present paper works out that program in detail for the simpler, but still physically non-trivial, case where the target of the embedding is the homogeneous, but not isotropic, Bianchi I model. The diffeomorphism-invariant conditions imposing homogeneity and isotropy in the full theory reduce to conditions imposing isotropy on an already homogeneous Bianchi I spacetime. The reduced conditions are invariant under the residual diffeomorphisms still allowed after gauge fixing the Bianchi I model. We show that there is a unique embedding of the quantum isotropic model into the homogeneous quantum Bianchi I model that (a) is covariant with respect to the actions of such residual diffeomorphisms, and (b) intertwines both the (signed) volume operator and at least one directional Hubble rate. That embedding also intertwines all other operators of interest in the respective loop quantum cosmological models, including their Hamiltonian constraints. It thus establishes a precise equivalence between dynamics in the isotropic sector of the Bianchi I model and the quantized isotropic model, and not just their kinematics. We also discuss the adjoint relationship between the embedding map defined here and a projection map previously defined by Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. Finally, we highlight certain features that simplify this reduced embedding problem, but which may not have direct analogues in the embedding of homogeneous and isotropic LQC into full LQG. more »« less

Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Kocić, Saša(
, International Mathematics Research Notices)

null
(Ed.)

Abstract We initiate the study of Schrödinger operators with ergodic potentials defined over circle map dynamics, in particular over circle diffeomorphisms. For analytic circle diffeomorphisms and a set of rotation numbers satisfying Yoccoz’s ${{\mathcal{H}}}$ arithmetic condition, we discuss an extension of Avila’s global theory. We also give an abstract version and a short proof of a sharp Gordon-type theorem on the absence of eigenvalues for general potentials with repetitions. Coupled with the dynamical analysis, we obtain that, for every $C^{1+BV}$ circle diffeomorphism, with a super Liouville rotation number and an invariant measure $\mu $, and for $\mu $-almost all $x\in{{\mathbb{T}}}^1$, the corresponding Schrödinger operator has purely continuous spectrum for every Hölder continuous potential $V$.

AVILA, A.; VIANA, MARCELO; WILKINSON, A.(
, Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems)

Abstract We explore new connections between the dynamics of conservative partially hyperbolic systems and the geometric measure-theoretic properties of their invariant foliations. Our methods are applied to two main classes of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms: fibered partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms and center-fixing partially hyperbolic systems. When the center is one-dimensional, assuming the diffeomorphism is accessible, we prove that the disintegration of the volume measure along the center foliation is either atomic or Lebesgue. Moreover, the latter case is rigid in dimension three (this does not require accessibility): the center foliation is actually smooth and the diffeomorphism is smoothly conjugate to an explicit rigid model. A partial extension to fibered partially hyperbolic systems with compact fibers of any dimension is also obtained. A common feature of these classes of diffeomorphisms is that the center leaves either are compact or can be made compact by taking an appropriate dynamically defined quotient. For volume-preserving partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms whose center foliation is absolutely continuous, if the generic center leaf is a circle, then every center leaf is compact.

Embedding properties of network realizations of dissipative reduced order models
Jörn Zimmerling, Mikhail Zaslavsky,Rob Remis, Shasri Moskow, Alexander Mamonov, Murthy Guddati,
Vladimir Druskin, and Liliana Borcea
Mathematical Sciences Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
https://www.wpi.edu/people/vdruskin
Abstract
Realizations of reduced order models of passive SISO or MIMO LTI problems can be transformed to tridiagonal and
block-tridiagonal forms, respectively, via dierent modications of the Lanczos algorithm. Generally, such realizations
can be interpreted as ladder resistor-capacitor-inductor (RCL) networks. They gave rise to network syntheses in the
rst half of the 20th century that was at the base of modern electronics design and consecutively to MOR that
tremendously impacted many areas of engineering (electrical, mechanical, aerospace, etc.) by enabling ecient
compression of the underlining dynamical systems. In his seminal 1950s works Krein realized that in addition to
their compressing properties, network realizations can be used to embed the data back into the state space of the
underlying continuum problems.
In more recent works of the authors Krein's ideas gave rise to so-called nite-dierence Gaussian quadrature rules
(FDGQR), allowing to approximately map the ROM state-space representation to its full order continuum counterpart
on a judicially chosen grid. Thus, the state variables can be accessed directly from the transfer function without
solving the full problem and even explicit knowledge of the PDE coecients in the interior, i.e., the FDGQR directly
learns" the problem from its transfer function. This embedding property found applications in PDE solvers, inverse
problems and unsupervised machine learning.
Here we show a generalization of this approach to dissipative PDE problems, e.g., electromagnetic and acoustic
wave propagation in lossy dispersive media. Potential applications include solution of inverse scattering problems in
dispersive media, such as seismic exploration, radars and sonars.
To x the idea, we consider a passive irreducible SISO ROM
fn(s) = Xn
j=1
yi
s + σj
, (62)
assuming that all complex terms in (62) come in conjugate pairs.
We will seek ladder realization of (62) as
rjuj + vj − vj−1 = −shˆjuj ,
uj+1 − uj + ˆrj vj = −shj vj ,
(63)
for j = 0, . . . , n with boundary conditions
un+1 = 0, v1 = −1,
and 4n real parameters hi, hˆi, ri and rˆi, i = 1, . . . , n, that can be considered, respectively, as the equivalent discrete
inductances, capacitors and also primary and dual conductors. Alternatively, they can be viewed as respectively
masses, spring stiness, primary and dual dampers of a mechanical string. Reordering variables would bring (63)
into tridiagonal form, so from the spectral measure given by (62 ) the coecients of (63) can be obtained via a
non-symmetric Lanczos algorithm written in J-symmetric form and fn(s) can be equivalently computed as
fn(s) = u1.
The cases considered in the original FDGQR correspond to either (i) real y, θ or (ii) real y and imaginary θ. Both
cases are covered by the Stieltjes theorem, that yields in case (i) real positive h, hˆ and trivial r, rˆ, and in case (ii) real
positive h,r and trivial hˆ,rˆ. This result allowed us a simple interpretation of (62) as the staggered nite-dierence
approximation of the underlying PDE problem [2]. For PDEs in more than one variables (including topologically rich
data-manifolds), a nite-dierence interpretation is obtained via a MIMO extensions in block form, e.g., [4, 3].
The main diculty of extending this approach to general passive problems is that the Stieltjes theory is no longer
applicable. Moreover, the tridiagonal realization of a passive ROM transfer function (62) via the ladder network (63)
cannot always be obtained in port-Hamiltonian form, i.e., the equivalent primary and dual conductors may change
sign [1].
100
Embedding of the Stieltjes problems, e.g., the case (i) was done by mapping h and hˆ into values of acoustic (or
electromagnetic) impedance at grid cells, that required a special coordinate stretching (known as travel time coordinate transform) for continuous problems. Likewise, to circumvent possible non-positivity of conductors for the
non-Stieltjes case, we introduce an additional complex s-dependent coordinate stretching, vanishing as s → ∞ [1].
This stretching applied in the discrete setting induces a diagonal factorization, removes oscillating coecients, and
leads to an accurate embedding for moderate variations of the coecients of the continuum problems, i.e., it maps
discrete coecients onto the values of their continuum counterparts.
Not only does this embedding yields an approximate linear algebraic algorithm for the solution of the inverse problems
for dissipative PDEs, it also leads to new insight into the properties of their ROM realizations. We will also discuss
another approach to embedding, based on Krein-Nudelman theory [5], that results in special data-driven adaptive
grids.
References
[1] Borcea, Liliana and Druskin, Vladimir and Zimmerling, Jörn, A reduced order model approach to
inverse scattering in lossy layered media, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 89, N1, pp. 136,2021
[2] Druskin, Vladimir and Knizhnerman, Leonid, Gaussian spectral rules for the three-point second dierences:
I. A two-point positive denite problem in a semi-innite domain, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, V. 37,
N 2, pp.403422, 1999
[3] Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Distance preserving model
order reduction of graph-Laplacians and cluster analysis, Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V
and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 90, N 1, pp 130, 2022
[4] Druskin, Vladimir and Moskow, Shari and Zaslavsky, Mikhail LippmannSchwingerLanczos algorithm
for inverse scattering problems, Inverse Problems, V. 37, N. 7, 2021,
[5] Mark Adolfovich Nudelman The Krein String and Characteristic Functions of Maximal Dissipative Operators, Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 2004, V 124, pp 49184934
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BARTHELMÉ, THOMAS; FENLEY, SERGIO R.; FRANKEL, STEVEN; POTRIE, RAFAEL(
, Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems)

Abstract We show that if a partially hyperbolic diffeomorphism of a Seifert manifold induces a map in the base which has a pseudo-Anosov component then it cannot be dynamically coherent. This extends [C. Bonatti, A. Gogolev, A. Hammerlindl and R. Potrie. Anomalous partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms III: Abundance and incoherence. Geom. Topol. , to appear] to the whole isotopy class. We relate the techniques to the study of certain partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms in hyperbolic 3-manifolds performed in [T. Barthelmé, S. Fenley, S. Frankel and R. Potrie. Partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms homotopic to the identity in dimension 3, part I: The dynamically coherent case. Preprint , 2019, arXiv:1908.06227; Partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms homotopic to the identity in dimension 3, part II: Branching foliations. Preprint , 2020, arXiv: 2008.04871]. The appendix reviews some consequences of the Nielsen–Thurston classification of surface homeomorphisms for the dynamics of lifts of such maps to the universal cover.

Alexandru Chirvasitu(
, Munster journal of mathematics)

We show that for a closed embedding H ≤ G of locally compact quantum groups
(LCQGs) with G/H admitting an invariant probability measure, a unitary G-representation
is type-I if its restriction to H is. On a related note, we also prove that if an action G ⟳ A
of an LCQG on a unital C∗ -algebra admits an invariant state then the full group algebra
of G embeds into the resulting full crossed product (and into the multiplier algebra of that
crossed product if the original algebra is not unital).
We also prove a few other results on crossed products of LCQG actions, some of which
seem to be folklore; among them are (a) the fact that two mutually dual quantum-group
morphisms produce isomorphic full crossed products, and (b) the fact that full and reduced
crossed products by dual-coamenable LCQGs are isomorphic.

Beetle, C, Engle, J S, Hogan, M E, and Mendonça, P. Quantum isotropy and the reduction of dynamics in Bianchi I. Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10327472. Classical and Quantum Gravity 38.24 Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6382/ac337c.

Beetle, C, Engle, J S, Hogan, M E, & Mendonça, P. Quantum isotropy and the reduction of dynamics in Bianchi I. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 38 (24). Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10327472. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6382/ac337c

@article{osti_10327472,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
title = {Quantum isotropy and the reduction of dynamics in Bianchi I},
url = {https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10327472},
DOI = {10.1088/1361-6382/ac337c},
abstractNote = {Abstract The authors previously introduced a diffeomorphism-invariant definition of a homogeneous and isotropic sector of loop quantum gravity (LQG), along with a program to embed loop quantum cosmology (LQC) into it. The present paper works out that program in detail for the simpler, but still physically non-trivial, case where the target of the embedding is the homogeneous, but not isotropic, Bianchi I model. The diffeomorphism-invariant conditions imposing homogeneity and isotropy in the full theory reduce to conditions imposing isotropy on an already homogeneous Bianchi I spacetime. The reduced conditions are invariant under the residual diffeomorphisms still allowed after gauge fixing the Bianchi I model. We show that there is a unique embedding of the quantum isotropic model into the homogeneous quantum Bianchi I model that (a) is covariant with respect to the actions of such residual diffeomorphisms, and (b) intertwines both the (signed) volume operator and at least one directional Hubble rate. That embedding also intertwines all other operators of interest in the respective loop quantum cosmological models, including their Hamiltonian constraints. It thus establishes a precise equivalence between dynamics in the isotropic sector of the Bianchi I model and the quantized isotropic model, and not just their kinematics. We also discuss the adjoint relationship between the embedding map defined here and a projection map previously defined by Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. Finally, we highlight certain features that simplify this reduced embedding problem, but which may not have direct analogues in the embedding of homogeneous and isotropic LQC into full LQG.},
journal = {Classical and Quantum Gravity},
volume = {38},
number = {24},
author = {Beetle, C and Engle, J S and Hogan, M E and Mendonça, P},
}

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