skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2022

Title: Exploring the Evolution of Exploit-Sharing Hackers: An Unsupervised Graph Embedding Approach
Cybercrime was estimated to cost the global economy $945 billion in 2020. Increasingly, law enforcement agencies are using social network analysis (SNA) to identify key hackers from Dark Web hacker forums for targeted investigations. However, past approaches have primarily focused on analyzing key hackers at a single point in time and use a hacker’s structural features only. In this study, we propose a novel Hacker Evolution Identification Framework to identify how hackers evolve within hacker forums. The proposed framework has two novelties in its design. First, the framework captures features such as user statistics, node-level metrics, lexical measures, and post style, when representing each hacker with unsupervised graph embedding methods. Second, the framework incorporates mechanisms to align embedding spaces across multiple time-spells of data to facilitate analysis of how hackers evolve over time. Two experiments were conducted to assess the performance of prevailing graph embedding algorithms and nodal feature variations in the task of graph reconstruction in five timespells. Results of our experiments indicate that Text- Associated Deep-Walk (TADW) with all of the proposed nodal features outperforms methods without nodal features in terms of Mean Average Precision in each time-spell. We illustrate the potential practical utility of the proposed framework more » with a case study on an English forum with 51,612 posts. The results produced by the framework in this case study identified key hackers posting piracy assets. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1917117 1921485
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10336834
Journal Name:
2021 IEEE Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Cybersecurity experts have appraised the total global cost of malicious hacking activities to be $450 billion annually. Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) has emerged as a viable approach to combat this societal issue. However, existing processes are criticized as inherently reactive to known threats. To combat these concerns, CTI experts have suggested proactively examining emerging threats in the vast, international online hacker community. In this study, we aim to develop proactive CTI capabilities by exploring online hacker forums to identify emerging threats in terms of popularity and tool functionality. To achieve these goals, we create a novel Diachronic Graph Embedding Framework (D-GEF). D-GEF operates on a Graph-of-Words (GoW) representation of hacker forum text to generate word embeddings in an unsupervised manner. Semantic displacement measures adopted from diachronic linguistics literature identify how terminology evolves. A series of benchmark experiments illustrate D-GEF's ability to generate higher quality than state-of-the-art word embedding models (e.g., word2vec) in tasks pertaining to semantic analogy, clustering, and threat classification. D-GEF's practical utility is illustrated with in-depth case studies on web application and denial of service threats targeting PHP and Windows technologies, respectively. We also discuss the implications of the proposed framework for strategic, operational, and tactical CTI scenarios.more »All datasets and code are publicly released to facilitate scientific reproducibility and extensions of this work.« less
  2. Directed graphs have been widely used in Community Question Answering services (CQAs) to model asymmetric relationships among different types of nodes in CQA graphs, e.g., question, answer, user. Asymmetric transitivity is an essential property of directed graphs, since it can play an important role in downstream graph inference and analysis. Question difficulty and user expertise follow the characteristic of asymmetric transitivity. Maintaining such properties, while reducing the graph to a lower dimensional vector embedding space, has been the focus of much recent research. In this paper, we tackle the challenge of directed graph embedding with asymmetric transitivity preservation and then leverage the proposed embedding method to solve a fundamental task in CQAs: how to appropriately route and assign newly posted questions to users with the suitable expertise and interest in CQAs. The technique incorporates graph hierarchy and reachability information naturally by relying on a nonlinear transformation that operates on the core reachability and implicit hierarchy within such graphs. Subsequently, the methodology levers a factorization-based approach to generate two embedding vectors for each node within the graph, to capture the asymmetric transitivity. Extensive experiments show that our framework consistently and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on three diverse realworld tasks: linkmore »prediction, and question difficulty estimation and expert finding in online forums like Stack Exchange. Particularly, our framework can support inductive embedding learning for newly posted questions (unseen nodes during training), and therefore can properly route and assign these kinds of questions to experts in CQAs.« less
  3. Informative representation of road networks is essential to a wide variety of applications on intelligent transportation systems. In this article, we design a new learning framework, called Representation Learning for Road Networks (RLRN), which explores various intrinsic properties of road networks to learn embeddings of intersections and road segments in road networks. To implement the RLRN framework, we propose a new neural network model, namely Road Network to Vector (RN2Vec), to learn embeddings of intersections and road segments jointly by exploring geo-locality and homogeneity of them, topological structure of the road networks, and moving behaviors of road users. In addition to model design, issues involving data preparation for model training are examined. We evaluate the learned embeddings via extensive experiments on several real-world datasets using different downstream test cases, including node/edge classification and travel time estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed RN2Vec robustly outperforms existing methods, including (i) Feature-based methods : raw features and principal components analysis (PCA); (ii) Network embedding methods : DeepWalk, LINE, and Node2vec; and (iii) Features + Network structure-based methods : network embeddings and PCA, graph convolutional networks, and graph attention networks. RN2Vec significantly outperforms all of them in terms of F1-score in classifying trafficmore »signals (11.96% to 16.86%) and crossings (11.36% to 16.67%) on intersections and in classifying avenue (10.56% to 15.43%) and street (11.54% to 16.07%) on road segments, as well as in terms of Mean Absolute Error in travel time estimation (17.01% to 23.58%).« less
  4. Network embedding has become the cornerstone of a variety of mining tasks, such as classification, link prediction, clustering, anomaly detection and many more, thanks to its superior ability to encode the intrinsic network characteristics in a compact low-dimensional space. Most of the existing methods focus on a single network and/or a single resolution, which generate embeddings of different network objects (node/subgraph/network) from different networks separately. A fundamental limitation with such methods is that the intrinsic relationship across different networks (e.g., two networks share same or similar subgraphs) and that across different resolutions (e.g., the node-subgraph membership) are ignored, resulting in disparate embeddings. Consequentially, it leads to sub-optimal performance or even becomes inapplicable for some downstream mining tasks (e.g., role classification, network alignment. etc.). In this paper, we propose a unified framework MrMine to learn the representations of objects from multiple networks at three complementary resolutions (i.e., network, subgraph and node) simultaneously. The key idea is to construct the cross-resolution cross-network context for each object. The proposed method bears two distinctive features. First, it enables and/or boosts various multi-network downstream mining tasks by having embeddings at different resolutions from different networks in the same embedding space. Second, Our method is efficientmore »and scalable, with a O(nlog(n)) time complexity for the base algorithm and a linear time complexity w.r.t. the number of nodes and edges of input networks for the accelerated version. Extensive experiments on real-world data show that our methods (1) are able to enable and enhance a variety of multi-network mining tasks, and (2) scale up to million-node networks.« less
  5. Network embedding, which learns the low-dimensional representations of nodes, has gained significant research attention. Despite its superior empirical success, often measured by the prediction performance of downstream tasks (e.g., multi-label classification), it is unclear why a given embedding algorithm outputs the specific node representations, and how the resulting node representations relate to the structure of the input network. In this paper, we propose to discern the edge influence as the first step towards understanding skip-gram basd network embedding methods. For this purpose, we propose an auditing framework NEAR, whose key part includes two algorithms (NEAR-ADD and NEAR-DEL) to effectively and efficiently quantify the influence of each edge. Based on the algorithms, we further identify high-influential edges by exploiting the linkage between edge influence and the network structure. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms (NEAR-ADD and NEAR-DEL) are significantly faster (up to 2, 000×) than straightforward methods with little quality loss. Moreover, the proposed framework can efficiently identify the most influential edges for network embedding in the context of downstream prediction task and adversarial attacking.