skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Algorithmic case-based decision support provides examples to help human make sense of predicted labels and aid human in decision-making tasks. Despite the promising performance of supervised learning, representations learned by supervised models may not align well with human intuitions: what models consider as similar examples can be perceived as distinct by humans. As a result, they have limited effectiveness in case-based decision support. In this work, we incorporate ideas from metric learning with supervised learning to examine the importance of alignment for effective decision support. In addition to instance-level labels, we use human-provided triplet judgments to learn human-compatible decision-focused representations. Using both synthetic data and human subject experiments in multiple classification tasks, we demonstrate that such representation is better aligned with human perception than representation solely optimized for classification. Human-compatible representations identify nearest neighbors that are perceived as more similar by humans and allow humans to make more accurate predictions, leading to substantial improvements in human decision accuracies (17.8% in butterfly vs. moth classification and 13.2% in pneumonia classification).  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2126602 2040989
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Eleventh International Conference on Learning Representations
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT Astronomers have typically set out to solve supervised machine learning problems by creating their own representations from scratch. We show that deep learning models trained to answer every Galaxy Zoo DECaLS question learn meaningful semantic representations of galaxies that are useful for new tasks on which the models were never trained. We exploit these representations to outperform several recent approaches at practical tasks crucial for investigating large galaxy samples. The first task is identifying galaxies of similar morphology to a query galaxy. Given a single galaxy assigned a free text tag by humans (e.g. ‘#diffuse’), we can find galaxies matching that tag for most tags. The second task is identifying the most interesting anomalies to a particular researcher. Our approach is 100 per cent accurate at identifying the most interesting 100 anomalies (as judged by Galaxy Zoo 2 volunteers). The third task is adapting a model to solve a new task using only a small number of newly labelled galaxies. Models fine-tuned from our representation are better able to identify ring galaxies than models fine-tuned from terrestrial images (ImageNet) or trained from scratch. We solve each task with very few new labels; either one (for the similarity search) or several hundred (for anomaly detection or fine-tuning). This challenges the longstanding view that deep supervised methods require new large labelled data sets for practical use in astronomy. To help the community benefit from our pretrained models, we release our fine-tuning code zoobot. Zoobot is accessible to researchers with no prior experience in deep learning. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract Text classification is a widely studied problem and has broad applications. In many real-world problems, the number of texts for training classification models is limited, which renders these models prone to overfitting. To address this problem, we propose SSL-Reg, a data-dependent regularization approach based on self-supervised learning (SSL). SSL (Devlin et al., 2019a) is an unsupervised learning approach that defines auxiliary tasks on input data without using any human-provided labels and learns data representations by solving these auxiliary tasks. In SSL-Reg, a supervised classification task and an unsupervised SSL task are performed simultaneously. The SSL task is unsupervised, which is defined purely on input texts without using any human- provided labels. Training a model using an SSL task can prevent the model from being overfitted to a limited number of class labels in the classification task. Experiments on 17 text classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. Code is available at 
    more » « less
  3. Many applications of machine learning require a model to make accurate predictions on test examples that are distributionally different from training ones, while task-specific labels are scarce during training. An effective approach to this challenge is to pre-train a model on related tasks where data is abundant, and then fine-tune it on a downstream task of interest. While pre-training has been effective in many language and vision domains, it remains an open question how to effectively use pre-training on graph datasets. In this paper, we develop a new strategy and self-supervised methods for pre-training Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). The key to the success of our strategy is to pre-train an expressive GNN at the level of individual nodes as well as entire graphs so that the GNN can learn useful local and global representations simultaneously. We systematically study pre-training on multiple graph classification datasets. We find that naïve strategies, which pre-train GNNs at the level of either entire graphs or individual nodes, give limited improvement and can even lead to negative transfer on many downstream tasks. In contrast, our strategy avoids negative transfer and improves generalization significantly across downstream tasks, leading up to 9.4% absolute improvements in ROC-AUC over non-pre-trained models and achieving state-of-the-art performance for molecular property prediction and protein function prediction. 
    more » « less
  4. Human context recognition (HCR) using sensor data is a crucial task in Context-Aware (CA) applications in domains such as healthcare and security. Supervised machine learning HCR models are trained using smartphone HCR datasets that are scripted or gathered in-the-wild. Scripted datasets are most accurate because of their consistent visit patterns. Supervised machine learning HCR models perform well on scripted datasets but poorly on realistic data. In-the-wild datasets are more realistic, but cause HCR models to perform worse due to data imbalance, missing or incorrect labels, and a wide variety of phone placements and device types. Lab-to-field approaches learn a robust data representation from a scripted, high-fidelity dataset, which is then used for enhancing performance on a noisy, in-the-wild dataset with similar labels. This research introduces Triplet-based Domain Adaptation for Context REcognition (Triple-DARE), a lab-to-field neural network method that combines three unique loss functions to enhance intra-class compactness and inter-class separation within the embedding space of multi-labeled datasets: (1) domain alignment loss in order to learn domain-invariant embeddings; (2) classification loss to preserve task-discriminative features; and (3) joint fusion triplet loss. Rigorous evaluations showed that Triple-DARE achieved 6.3% and 4.5% higher F1-score and classification, respectively, than state-of-the-art HCR baselines and outperformed non-adaptive HCR models by 44.6% and 10.7%, respectively. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Recent years have witnessed the enormous success of text representation learning in a wide range of text mining tasks. Earlier word embedding learning approaches represent words as fixed low-dimensional vectors to capture their semantics. The word embeddings so learned are used as the input features of task-specific models. Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs), which learn universal language representations via pre-training Transformer-based neural models on large-scale text corpora, have revolutionized the natural language processing (NLP) field. Such pre-trained representations encode generic linguistic features that can be transferred to almost any text-related applications. PLMs outperform previous task-specific models in many applications as they only need to be fine-tuned on the target corpus instead of being trained from scratch. In this tutorial, we introduce recent advances in pre-trained text embeddings and language models, as well as their applications to a wide range of text mining tasks. Specifically, we first overview a set of recently developed self-supervised and weakly-supervised text embedding methods and pre-trained language models that serve as the fundamentals for downstream tasks. We then present several new methods based on pre-trained text embeddings and language models for various text mining applications such as topic discovery and text classification. We focus on methods that are weakly-supervised, domain-independent, language-agnostic, effective and scalable for mining and discovering structured knowledge from large-scale text corpora. Finally, we demonstrate with real world datasets how pre-trained text representations help mitigate the human annotation burden and facilitate automatic, accurate and efficient text analyses. 
    more » « less