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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 9, 2024
  2. Modern autonomous systems rely on both object detection and object tracking in their visual perception pipelines. Although many recent works have attacked the object detection component of autonomous vehicles, these attacks do not work on full pipelines that integrate object tracking to enhance the object detector's accuracy. Meanwhile, existing attacks against object tracking either lack real-world applicability or do not work against a powerful class of object trackers, Siamese trackers. In this paper, we present AttrackZone, a new physically-realizable tracker hijacking attack against Siamese trackers that systematically determines valid regions in an environment that can be used for physical perturbations. AttrackZone exploits the heatmap generation process of Siamese Region Proposal Networks in order to take control of an object's bounding box, resulting in physical consequences including vehicle collisions and masked intrusion of pedestrians into unauthorized areas. Evaluations in both the digital and physical domain show that AttrackZone achieves its attack goals 92% of the time, requiring only 0.3-3 seconds on average. 
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  3. Computing systems, including real-time embedded systems, are becoming increasingly connected to allow for more advanced and safer operation. Such embedded systems are also often resource-constrained, for example, with lower processing capabilities compared to general-purpose computing systems like desktops or servers. With the advent of paradigms such as internet-of-things (IoT), embedded systems in both commercial and industrial contexts are being increasingly interconnected and exposed to the external networks to improve automation and efficiency of operation. However, allowing external interfaces to such embedded systems increases their exposure to attackers. With an increase in attacks against embedded systems ranging from home appliances to industrial control systems operating critical equipment that have real-time requirements, it is imperative that defense mechanisms be created that explicitly consider such resource and real-time constraints. Control-flow integrity (CFI) is a family of defense mechanisms that prevent attackers from modifying the flow of execution. We survey CFI techniques, ranging from the basic to state of the art, that are built for embedded systems and real-time embedded systems and find that there is a dearth, especially for real-time embedded systems, of CFI mechanisms. We then present open challenges to the community to help drive future research in this domain. 
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