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  1. Neural programs are highly accurate and structured policies that perform algorith- mic tasks by controlling the behavior of a computation mechanism. Despite the potential to increase the interpretability and the compositionality of the behavior of artificial agents, it remains difficult to learn from demonstrations neural networks that represent computer programs. The main challenges that set algorithmic do- mains apart from other imitation learning domains are the need for high accuracy, the involvement of specific structures of data, and the extremely limited observabil- ity. To address these challenges, we propose to model programs as Parametrized Hierarchical Procedures (PHPs). A PHP is a sequence of conditional operations, using a program counter along with the observation to select between taking an elementary action, invoking another PHP as a sub-procedure, and returning to the caller. We develop an algorithm for training PHPs from a set of supervisor demonstrations, only some of which are annotated with the internal call structure, and apply it to efficient level-wise training of multi-level PHPs. We show in two benchmarks, NanoCraft and long-hand addition, that PHPs can learn neural pro- grams more accurately from smaller amounts of both annotated and unannotated demonstrations.
  2. Vacuum-based end effectors are widely used in in- dustry and are often preferred over parallel-jaw and multifinger grippers due to their ability to lift objects with a single point of contact. Suction grasp planners often target planar surfaces on point clouds near the estimated centroid of an object. In this paper, we propose a compliant suction contact model that computes the quality of the seal between the suction cup and local target surface and a measure of the ability of the suction grasp to resist an external gravity wrench. To characterize grasps, we estimate robustness to perturbations in end-effector and object pose, material properties, and external wrenches. We analyze grasps across 1,500 3D object models to generate Dex- Net 3.0, a dataset of 2.8 million point clouds, suction grasps, and grasp robustness labels. We use Dex-Net 3.0 to train a Grasp Quality Convolutional Neural Network (GQ-CNN) to classify robust suction targets in point clouds containing a single object. We evaluate the resulting system in 350 physical trials on an ABB YuMi fitted with a pneumatic suction gripper. When eval- uated on novel objects that we categorize as Basic (prismatic or cylindrical), Typical (more complex geometry), and Adversarial (with few availablemore »suction-grasp points) Dex-Net 3.0 achieves success rates of 98%, 82%, and 58% respectively, improving to 81% in the latter case when the training set includes only adversarial objects. Code, datasets, and supplemental material can be found at http://berkeleyautomation.github.io/dex-net.« less
  3. Imitation learning is a powerful paradigm for robot skill acquisition. However, obtaining demonstrations suitable for learning a policy that maps from raw pixels to actions can be challenging. In this paper we describe how consumer-grade Virtual Reality headsets and hand tracking hardware can be used to naturally teleoperate robots to perform complex tasks. We also describe how imitation learning can learn deep neural network policies (mapping from pixels to actions) that can acquire the demonstrated skills. Our experiments showcase the effectiveness of our approach for learning visuomotor skills.