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  1. One of the fundamental goals of visual perception is to allow agents to meaningfully interact with their environment. In this paper, we take a step towards that long-term goal – we extract highly localized actionable information related to elementary actions such as pushing or pulling for articulated objects with movable parts. For example, given a drawer, our network predicts that applying a pulling force on the handle opens the drawer. We propose, discuss, and evaluate novel network architectures that given image and depth data, predict the set of actions possible at each pixel, and the regions over articulated parts that are likely to move under the force. We propose a learning-from-interaction framework with an online data sampling strategy that allows us to train the network in simulation (SAPIEN) and generalizes across categories. Check the website for code and data release. 
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  2. We introduce HuMoR: a 3D Human Motion Model for Robust Estimation of temporal pose and shape. Though substantial progress has been made in estimating 3D human motion and shape from dynamic observations, recovering plausible pose sequences in the presence of noise and occlusions remains a challenge. For this purpose, we propose an expressive generative model in the form of a conditional variational autoencoder, which learns a distribution of the change in pose at each step of a motion sequence. Furthermore, we introduce a flexible optimization-based approach that leverages HuMoR as a motion prior to robustly estimate plausible pose and shape from ambiguous observations. Through extensive evaluations, we demonstrate that our model generalizes to diverse motions and body shapes after training on a large motion capture dataset, and enables motion reconstruction from multiple input modalities including 3D keypoints and RGB(-D) videos. See the project page at geometry.stanford.edu/projects/humor. 
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  3. Manipulating volumetric deformable objects in the real world, like plush toys and pizza dough, brings substantial challenges due to infinite shape variations, non-rigid motions, and partial observability. We introduce ACID, an action-conditional visual dynamics model for volumetric deformable objects based on structured implicit neural representations. ACID integrates two new techniques: implicit representations for action-conditional dynamics and geodesics-based contrastive learning. To represent deformable dynamics from partial RGB-D observations, we learn implicit representations of occupancy and flow-based forward dynamics. To accurately identify state change under large non-rigid deformations, we learn a correspondence embedding field through a novel geodesics-based contrastive loss. To evaluate our approach, we develop a simulation framework for manipulating complex deformable shapes in realistic scenes and a benchmark containing over 17,000 action trajectories with six types of plush toys and 78 variants. Our model achieves the best performance in geometry, correspondence, and dynamics predictions over existing approaches. The ACID dynamics models are successfully employed for goal-conditioned deformable manipulation tasks, resulting in a 30% increase in task success rate over the strongest baseline. Furthermore, we apply the simulation-trained ACID model directly to real-world objects and show success in manipulating them into target configurations. https://b0ku1.github.io/acid/

     
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  4. In this work, we tackle the problem of category-level online pose tracking of objects from point cloud sequences. For the first time, we propose a unified framework that can handle 9DoF pose tracking for novel rigid object instances as well as per-part pose tracking for articulated objects from known categories. Here the 9DoF pose, comprising 6D pose and 3D size, is equivalent to a 3D amodal bounding box representation with free 6D pose. Given the depth point cloud at the current frame and the estimated pose from the last frame, our novel end-to-end pipeline learns to accurately update the pose. Our pipeline is composed of three modules: 1) a pose canonicalization module that normalizes the pose of the input depth point cloud; 2) RotationNet, a module that directly regresses small interframe delta rotations; and 3) CoordinateNet, a module that predicts the normalized coordinates and segmentation, enabling analytical computation of the 3D size and translation. Leveraging the small pose regime in the pose-canonicalized point clouds, our method integrates the best of both worlds by combining dense coordinate prediction and direct rotation regression, thus yielding an end-to-end differentiable pipeline optimized for 9DoF pose accuracy (without using non-differentiable RANSAC). Our extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves new state-of-the-art performance on category-level rigid object pose (NOCSREAL275 [29]) and articulated object pose benchmarks (SAPIEN [34], BMVC [18]) at the fastest FPS ∼ 12. 
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    Learning pose invariant representation is a fundamental problem in shape analysis. Most existing deep learning algorithms for 3D shape analysis are not robust to rotations and are often trained on synthetic datasets consisting of pre-aligned shapes, yielding poor generalization to unseen poses. This observation motivates a growing interest in rotation invariant and equivariant methods. The field of rotation equivariant deep learning is developing in recent years thanks to a well established theory of Lie group representations and convolutions. A fundamental problem in equivariant deep learning is to design activation functions which are both informative and preserve equivariance. The recently introduced Tensor Field Network (TFN) framework provides a rotation equivariant network design for point cloud analysis. TFN features undergo a rotation in feature space given a rotation of the input pointcloud. TFN and similar designs consider nonlinearities which operate only over rotation invariant features such as the norm of equivariant features to preserve equivariance, making them unable to capture the directional information. In a recent work entitled "Gauge Equivariant Mesh CNNs: Anisotropic Convolutions on Geometric Graphs" Hann et al. interpret 2D rotation equivariant features as Fourier coefficients of functions on the circle. In this work we transpose the idea of Hann et al. to 3D by interpreting TFN features as spherical harmonics coefficients of functions on the sphere. We introduce a new equivariant nonlinearity and pooling for TFN. We show improvments over the original TFN design and other equivariant nonlinearities in classification and segmentation tasks. Furthermore our method is competitive with state of the art rotation invariant methods in some instances. 
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    3D object detection is an important yet demanding task that heavily relies on difficult to obtain 3D annotations. To reduce the required amount of supervision, we propose 3DIoUMatch, a novel semi-supervised method for 3D object detection applicable to both indoor and outdoor scenes. We leverage a teacher-student mutual learning framework to propagate information from the labeled to the unlabeled train set in the form of pseudo-labels. However, due to the high task complexity, we observe that the pseudo-labels suffer from significant noise and are thus not directly usable. To that end, we introduce a confidence-based filtering mechanism, inspired by FixMatch. We set confidence thresholds based upon the predicted objectness and class probability to filter low-quality pseudo-labels. While effective, we observe that these two measures do not sufficiently capture localization quality. We therefore propose to use the estimated 3D IoU as a localization metric and set category-aware self-adjusted thresholds to filter poorly localized proposals. We adopt VoteNet as our backbone detector on indoor datasets while we use PV-RCNN on the autonomous driving dataset, KITTI. Our method consistently improves state-of-the-art methods on both ScanNet and SUN-RGBD benchmarks by significant margins under all label ratios (including fully labeled setting). For example, when training using only 10% labeled data on ScanNet, 3DIoUMatch achieves 7.7 absolute improvement on mAP@0.25 and 8.5 absolute improvement on mAP@0.5 upon the prior art. On KITTI, we are the first to demonstrate semi-supervised 3D object detection and our method surpasses a fully supervised baseline from 1.8% to 7.6% under different label ratio and categories. 
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    In this paper, we examine the long-neglected yet important effects of point sampling patterns in point cloud GANs. Through extensive experiments, we show that sampling-insensitive discriminators (e.g.PointNet-Max) produce shape point clouds with point clustering artifacts while sampling-oversensitive discriminators (e.g. PointNet++, DGCNN) fail to guide valid shape generation. We propose the concept of sampling spectrum to depict the different sampling sensitivities of discriminators. We further study how different evaluation metrics weigh the sampling pattern against the geometry and propose several perceptual metrics forming a sampling spectrum of metrics. Guided by the proposed sampling spectrum, we discover a middle-point sampling-aware baseline discriminator, PointNet-Mix, which improves all existing point cloud generators by a large margin on sampling-related metrics. We point out that, though recent research has been focused on the generator design, the main bottleneck of point cloud GAN actually lies in the discriminator design. Our work provides both suggestions and tools for building future discriminators. We will release the code to facilitate future research. 
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    Autonomous assembly is a crucial capability for robots in many applications. For this task, several problems such as obstacle avoidance, motion planning, and actuator control have been extensively studied in robotics. However, when it comes to task specification, the space of possibilities remains underexplored. Towards this end, we introduce a novel problem, single-image-guided 3D part assembly, along with a learning-based solution. We study this problem in the setting of furniture assembly from a given complete set of parts and a single image depicting the entire assembled object. Multiple challenges exist in this setting, including handling ambiguity among parts (e.g., slats in a chair back and leg stretchers) and 3D pose prediction for parts and part subassemblies, whether visible or occluded. We address these issues by proposing a two-module pipeline that leverages strong 2D-3D correspondences and assembly-oriented graph message-passing to infer part relationships. In experiments with a PartNet-based synthetic benchmark, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework as compared with three baseline approaches (code and data available at https://github.com/AntheaLi/3DPartAssembly). 
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