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  1. Incomplete or inconsistent temporal neuroimaging records of patients over time pose a major challenge to accurately predict clinical scores for diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In this paper, we present an unsupervised method to learn enriched imaging biomarker representations that can simultaneously capture the information conveyed by all the baseline neuroimaging measures and the progressive variations of the available follow-up measurements of every participant. Our experiments on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset show improved performance in predicting cognitive outcomes thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed method.
  2. Traditional accelerated life test plans are typically based on optimizing the C-optimality for minimizing the variance of an interested quantile of the lifetime distribution. These methods often rely on some specified planning values for the model parameters, which are usually unknown prior to the actual tests. The ambiguity of the specified parameters can lead to suboptimal designs for optimizing the reliability performance of interest. In this paper, we propose a sequential design strategy for life test plans based on considering dual objectives. In the early stage of the sequential experiment, we suggest allocating more design locations based on optimizing themore »D-optimality to quickly gain precision in the estimated model parameters. In the later stage of the experiment, we can allocate more observations based on optimizing the C-optimality to maximize the precision of the estimated quantile of the lifetime distribution. We compare the proposed sequential design strategy with existing test plans considering only a single criterion and illustrate the new method with an example on the fatigue testing of polymer composites.« less
  3. Unbiased photoelectrochemical hydrogen production with high efficiency and durability is highly desired for solar energy storage. Here, we report a microbial photoelectrochemical (MPEC) system that demonstrated superior performance when equipped with bioanodes and black silicon photocathode with a unique ‘‘Swiss-cheese’’ interface. The MPEC utilizes the chemical energy embedded in wastewater organics to boost solar H2 production, which overcomes barriers on anode H2O oxidation. Without any bias, the MPEC generates a record photocurrent (up to 23 mA cm2) and retains prolonged stability for over 90 hours with high Faradaic efficiency (96–99%). The calculated turnover number for MoSx catalyst during a 90more »h period is 495 471 with an average frequency of 1.53 s1 . The system replaced pure water on the anode with actual wastewater and achieved waste organic removal up to 16 kg COD m2 photocathode per day. Cost credits from concurrent wastewater treatment and low-cost design make photoelectrochemical H2 production practical for the first time« less
  4. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. Current artificial photosynthesis (APS) systems are promising for the storage of solar energy via transportable and storable fuels, but the anodic half-reaction of water oxidation is an energy intensive process which in many cases poorly couples with the cathodic half-reaction. Here we demonstrate a self-sustaining microbial photoelectrosynthesis (MPES) system that pairs microbial electrochemical oxidation with photoelectrochemical water reduction for energy efficient H2 generation. MPES reduces the overall energy requirements thereby greatly expanding the range of semiconductors that can be utilized in APS. Due to the recovery of chemical energy from waste organics by the mild microbial process and utilization ofmore »cost-effective and stable catalyst/electrode materials, our MPES system produced a stable current of 0.4 mA/cm2 for 24 h without any external bias and ∼10 mA/cm2 with a modest bias under one sun illumination. This system also showed other merits, such as creating benefits of wastewater treatment and facile preparation and scalability.« less
  7. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100more »TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023