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  1. Intelligent systems to support collaborative learning rely on real-time behavioral data, including language, audio, and video. However, noisy data, such as word errors in speech recognition, audio static or background noise, and facial mistracking in video, often limit the utility of multimodal data. It is an open question of how we can build reliable multimodal models in the face of substantial data noise. In this paper, we investigate the impact of data noise on the recognition of confusion and conflict moments during collaborative programming sessions by 25 dyads of elementary school learners. We measure language errors with word error rate (WER), audio noise with speech-to-noise ratio (SNR), and video errors with frame-by-frame facial tracking accuracy. The results showed that the model’s accuracy for detecting confusion and conflict in the language modality decreased drastically from 0.84 to 0.73 when the WER exceeded 20%. Similarly, in the audio modality, the model’s accuracy decreased sharply from 0.79 to 0.61 when the SNR dropped below 5 dB. Conversely, the model’s accuracy remained relatively constant in the video modality at a comparable level (> 0.70) so long as at least one learner’s face was successfully tracked. Moreover, we trained several multimodal models and found that integrating multimodal data could effectively offset the negative effect of noise in unimodal data, ultimately leading to improved accuracy in recognizing confusion and conflict. These findings have practical implications for the future deployment of intelligent systems that support collaborative learning in actual classroom settings. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 9, 2024
  2. Akram, Bita ; Shi, Yang ; Brusilovsky, Peter ; I-han Hsiao, Sharon ; Leinonen, Juho (Ed.)
    Promptly addressing students’ help requests on their programming assignments has become more and more challenging in computer science education. Since the pandemic, most instructors use online office hours to answer questions. Prior studies have shown increased student participation with online office hours. This popularity has led to significantly longer wait times in the office hours queue, and various strategies for selecting the next student to help may impact wait time. For example, prioritizing students who have not been seen on the day of the deadline will extend the wait time for students who are frequently rejoining the queue. To better understand this problem, we explored students’ behavior when they are waiting in the queue. We investigate the amount of time students are willing to wait in the queue by modeling the distribution of cancellation time. We find that after waiting for 49 minutes, most students will cancel their help request. Then, we looked at students’ coding actions during the waiting period and found that only 21% of students have commits while waiting. Surprisingly, students who waited for hours did not commit their work for automated feedback. Our findings suggest that time in the queue should be considered in addition to other factors like last interaction when selecting the next student to help during office hours to minimize canceled interactions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Mitrovic, A. ; Bosch, N. (Ed.)
    In computer science education timely help seeking during large programming projects is essential for student success. Help-seeking in typical courses happens in office hours and through online forums. In this research, we analyze students coding activities and help requests to understand the interaction between these activities. We collected student’s help requests during coding assignments on two different platforms in a CS2 course, and categorized those requests into eight categories (including implementation, addressing test failures, general debugging, etc.). Then we analyzed the proportion of each type of requests and how they changed over time. We also collected student’s coding status (including what part of the code changed and the frequency of commits) before they seek help to investigate if students share a similar code change behavior leading to certain type of help requests. 
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  4. Merkle, Larry ; Doyle, Maureen ; Sheard, Judithe ; Soh, Leen-Kiat ; Dorn, Brian (Ed.)
    In Computer Science (CS) education, instructors use office hours for one-on-one help-seeking. Prior work has shown that traditional in-person office hours may be underutilized. In response many instructors are adding or transitioning to virtual office hours. Our research focuses on comparing in-person and online office hours to investigate differences between performance, interaction time, and the characteristics of the students who utilize in-person and virtual office hours. We analyze a rich dataset covering two semesters of a CS2 course which used in-person office hours in Fall 2019 and virtual office hours in Fall 2020. Our data covers students' use of office hours, the nature of their questions, and the time spent receiving help as well as demographic and attitude data. Our results show no relationship between student's attendance in office hours and class performance. However we found that female students attended office hours more frequently, as did students with a fixed mindset in computing, and those with weaker skills in transferring theory to practice. We also found that students with low confidence in or low enjoyment toward CS were more active in virtual office hours. Finally, we observed a significant correlation between students attending virtual office hours and an increased interest in CS study; while students attending in-person office hours tend to show an increase in their growth mindset. 
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  5. In Computer Science (CS) education, instructors use office hours for one-on-one help-seeking. Prior work has shown that traditional in-person office hours may be underutilized. In response many instructors are adding or transitioning to virtual office hours. Our research focuses on comparing in-person and online office hours to investigate differences between performance, interaction time, and the characteristics of the students who utilize in-person and virtual office hours. We analyze a rich dataset covering two semesters of a CS2 course which used in-person office hours in Fall 2019 and virtual office hours in Fall 2020. Our data covers students' use of office hours, the nature of their questions, and the time spent receiving help as well as demographic and attitude data. Our results show no relationship between student's attendance in office hours and class performance. However we found that female students attended office hours more frequently, as did students with a fixed mindset in computing, and those with weaker skills in transferring theory to practice. We also found that students with low confidence in or low enjoyment toward CS were more active in virtual office hours. Finally, we observed a significant correlation between students attending virtual office hours and an increased interest in CS study; while students attending in-person office hours tend to show an increase in their growth mindset. 
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  6. Merkle, Larry ; Doyle, Maureen ; Sheard, Judithe ; Soh, Leen-Kiat ; Dorn, Brian (Ed.)
    As enrollment in CS programs have risen, it has become increasingly difficult for teaching staff to provide timely and detailed guidance on student projects. To address this, instructors use automated assessment tools to evaluate students’ code and processes as they work. Even with automation, understanding students’ progress, and more importantly, if students are making the ‘right’ progress toward the solution is challenging at scale. To help students manage their time and learn good software engineering processes, instructors may create intermediate deadlines, or milestones, to support progress. However, student’s adherence to these processes is opaque and may hinder student success and instructional support. Better understanding of how students follow process guidance in practice is needed to identify the right assignment structures to support development of high-quality process skills. We use data collected from an automated assessment tool, to calculate a set of 15 progress indicators to investigate which types of progress are being made during four stages of two projects in a CS2 course. These stages are split up by milestones to help guide student activities. We show how looking at which progress indicators are triggered significantly more or less during each stage validates whether students are adhering to the goals of each milestone. We also find students trigger some progress indicators earlier on the second project suggesting improving processes over time. 
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  7. As enrollment in CS programs have risen, it has become increasingly difficult for teaching staff to provide timely and detailed guidance on student projects. To address this, instructors use automated assessment tools to evaluate students' code and processes as they work. Even with automation, understanding students' progress, and more importantly, if students are making the 'right' progress toward the solution is challenging at scale. To help students manage their time and learn good software engineering processes, instructors may create intermediate deadlines, or milestones, to support progress. However, student's adherence to these processes is opaque and may hinder student success and instructional support. Better understanding of how students follow process guidance in practice is needed to identify the right assignment structures to support development of high-quality process skills. We use data collected from an automated assessment tool, to calculate a set of 15 progress indicators to investigate which types of progress are being made during four stages of two projects in a CS2 course. These stages are split up by milestones to help guide student activities. We show how looking at which progress indicators are triggered significantly more or less during each stage validates whether students are adhering to the goals of each milestone. We also find students trigger some progress indicators earlier on the second project suggesting improving processes over time. 
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  8. Background and Context: Students’ self-efficacy toward computing affect their participation in related tasks and courses. Self- efficacy is likely influenced by students’ initial experiences and exposure to computer science (CS) activities. Moreover, student interest in a subject likely informs their ability to effectively regulate their learning in that domain. One way to enhance interest in CS is through using collaborative pair programming. Objective: We wanted to explore upper elementary students’ self- efficacy for and conceptual understanding of CS as manifest in collaborative and regulated discourse during pair programming. Method: We implemented a five-week CS intervention with 4th and 5th grade students and collected self-report data on students’ CS attitudes and conceptual understanding, as well as transcripts of dyads talking while problem solving on a pair programming task. Findings: The students’ self-report data, organized by dyad, fell into three categories based on the dyad’s CS self-efficacy and conceptual understanding scores. Findings from within- and cross-case analyses revealed a range of ways the dyads’ self-efficacy and CS conceptual understanding affected their collaborative and regulated discourse. Implications: Recommendations for practitioners and researchers are provided. We suggest that upper elementary students learn about productive disagreement and how to peer model. Additionally, our findings may help practitioners with varied ways to group their students. 
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  9. null (Ed.)