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  1. Chemical doping can be used to control the charge-carrier polarity and concentration in two-dimensional van der Waals materials. However, conventional methods based on substitutional doping or surface functionalization result in the degradation of electrical mobility due to structural disorder, and the maximum doping density is set by the solubility limit of dopants. Here we show that a reversible laser-assisted chlorination process can be used to create high doping concentrations (above 3 × 1013 cm−2) in graphene monolayers with minimal drops in mobility. The approach uses two lasers—with distinct photon energies and geometric configurations—that are designed for chlorination and subsequent chlorinemore »removal, allowing highly doped patterns to be written and erased without damaging the graphene. To illustrate the capabilities of our approach, we use it to create rewritable photoactive junctions for graphene-based photodetectors.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Merging the properties of VO2 and van der Waals (vdW) materials has given rise to novel tunable photonic devices. Despite recent studies on the effect of the phase change of VO2 on tuning near-field optical response of phonon polaritons in the infrared range, active tuning of optical phonons (OPhs) using far-field techniques has been scarce. Here, we investigate the tunability of OPhs of α-MoO3 in a multilayer structure with VO2. Our experiments show the frequency and intensity tuning of 2 cm–1 and 11% for OPhs in the [100] direction and 2 cm–1 and 28% for OPhs in the [010] crystalmore »direction of α-MoO3. Using the effective medium theory and dielectric models of each layer, we verify these findings with simulations. We then use loss tangent analysis and remove the effect of the substrate to understand the origin of these spectral characteristics. We expect that these findings will assist in intelligently designing tunable photonic devices for infrared applications, such as tunable camouflage and radiative cooling devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 6, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 20, 2022
  5. Abstract

    Naturally-occurring thermal materials usually possess specific thermal conductivity (κ), forming a digital set ofκvalues. Emerging thermal metamaterials have been deployed to realize effective thermal conductivities unattainable in natural materials. However, the effective thermal conductivities of such mixing-based thermal metamaterials are still in digital fashion, i.e., the effective conductivity remains discrete and static. Here, we report an analog thermal material whose effective conductivity can be in-situ tuned from near-zero to near-infinityκ. The proof-of-concept scheme consists of a spinning core made of uncured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fixed bilayer rings made of silicone grease and steel. Thanks to the spinning PDMS andmore »its induced convective effects, we can mold the heat flow robustly with continuously changing and anisotropicκ. Our work enables a single functional thermal material to meet the challenging demands of flexible thermal manipulation. It also provides platforms to investigate heat transfer in systems with moving components.

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  6. Controlling magnetization dynamics is imperative for developing ultrafast spintronics and tunable microwave devices. However, the previous research has demonstrated limited electric-field modulation of the effective magnetic damping, a parameter that governs the magnetization dynamics. Here, we propose an approach to manipulate the damping by using the large damping enhancement induced by the two-magnon scattering and a nonlocal spin relaxation process in which spin currents are resonantly transported from antiferromagnetic domains to ferromagnetic matrix in a mixed-phased metallic alloy FeRh. This damping enhancement in FeRh is sensitive to its fraction of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, which can be dynamically tuned bymore »electric fields through a strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. In a heterostructure of FeRh and piezoelectric PMN-PT, we demonstrated a more than 120% modulation of the effective damping by electric fields during the antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition. Our results demonstrate an efficient approach to controlling the magnetization dynamics, thus enabling low-power tunable electronics.« less
  7. Abstract

    Properties of semiconductors are largely defined by crystal imperfections including native defects. Van der Waals (vdW) semiconductors, a newly emerged class of materials, are no exception: defects exist even in the purest materials and strongly affect their electrical, optical, magnetic, catalytic and sensing properties. However, unlike conventional semiconductors where energy levels of defects are well documented, they are experimentally unknown in even the best studied vdW semiconductors, impeding the understanding and utilization of these materials. Here, we directly evaluate deep levels and their chemical trends in the bandgap of MoS2, WS2and their alloys by transient spectroscopic study. One ofmore »the deep levels is found to follow the conduction band minimum of each host, attributed to the native sulfur vacancy. A switchable, DX center - like deep level has also been identified, whose energy lines up instead on a fixed level across different hosts, explaining a persistent photoconductivity above 400 K.

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  8. Atomically thin diamond, also called diamane, is a two-dimensional carbon allotrope and has attracted considerable scientific interest because of its potential physical properties. However, the successful synthesis of a pristine diamane has up until now not been achieved. We demonstrate the realization of a pristine diamane through diamondization of mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene via compression. Resistance, optical absorption, and X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that hexagonal diamane (h-diamane) with a bandgap of 2.8 ± 0.3 eV forms by compressing trilayer and thicker graphene to above 20 GPa at room temperature and can be preserved upon decompression to ∼1.0 GPa. Theoretical calculationsmore »indicate that a (−2110)-oriented h-diamane is energetically stable and has a lower enthalpy than its few-layer graphene precursor above the transition pressure. Compared to gapless graphene, semiconducting h-diamane offers exciting possibilities for carbon-based electronic devices.« less
  9. Graphene-based nanodevices have been developed rapidly and are now considered a strong contender for postsilicon electronics. However, one challenge facing graphene-based transistors is opening a sizable bandgap in graphene. The largest bandgap achieved so far is several hundred meV in bilayer graphene, but this value is still far below the threshold for practical applications. Through in situ electrical measurements, we observed a semiconducting character in compressed trilayer graphene by tuning the interlayer interaction with pressure. The optical absorption measurements demonstrate that an intrinsic bandgap of 2.5 ± 0.3 eV could be achieved in such a semiconducting state, and once openedmore »could be preserved to a few GPa. The realization of wide bandgap in compressed trilayer graphene offers opportunities in carbon-based electronic devices.« less