skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1711603

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. The characteristics of metal and materials are very important to design any component so that it should not fail in the life of the service. The properties of the materials are also an important consideration while setting the manufacturing parameters which deforms the raw material to give the design shape without providing any defect or fracture. For centuries the commonly used method to characterize the material is the traditional uniaxial tension test. The standard has been created for this test by American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) – E8. This specimen is traditionally been used to test the materials and extract the properties needed for designing and manufacturing. It should be noted that the uniaxial tension test uses one axis to test the material i.e., the material is pulled in one direction to extract the properties. The data acquired from this test found enough for manufacturing operations of simple forming where one axis stretching is dominant. Recently a sudden increase in the usage of automotive vehicles results in sudden increases in fuel consumption which results in an increase in air pollution. To cope up with this challenge federal government is implying the stricter environmental regulation to decrease air pollution. Tomore »save from the environmental regulation penalty vehicle industry is researching innovation which would reduce vehicle weight and decrease fuel consumption. Thus, the innovation related to light-weighting is not only an option anymore but became a mandatory necessity to decrease fuel consumption. To achieve this target, the industry has been looking at fabricating components from high strength to ultra-high strength steels or lightweight materials. This need is driven by the requirement of 54 miles per gallon by 2025. In addition, the complexity in design increased where multiple individual parts are eliminated. This integrated complex part needs the complex manufacturing forming operation as well as the process like warm or hot forming for maximum formability. The complex forming process will induce the multi-axial stress states in the part, which is found difficult to predict using conventional tools like tension test material characterization. In many pieces of literature limiting dome height and bulge tests were suggested analyzing these multi-axial stress states. However, these tests limit the possibilities of applying multi-axial loading and resulting stress patterns due to contact surfaces. Thus, a test machine called biaxial test is devised which would provide the capability to test the specimen in multi-axial stress states with varying load. In this paper, two processes, limiting dome test and biaxial test were experimented to plot the forming limit curve. The forming limit curve serves the tool for the design of die for manufacturing operation. For experiments, the cruciform test specimens were used in both limiting dome test and biaxial test and tested at elevated temperatures. The forming limit curve from both tests was plotted and compared. In addition, the strain path, forming, and formability was investigated and the difference between the tests was provided.« less
  2. Familiarity with manufacturing environments is an essential aspect for many engineering students. However, such environments in real world often contain expensive equipment making them difficult to recreate in an educational setting. For this reason, simulated physical environments where the process is approximated using scaled-down representations are usually used in education. However, such physical simulations alone may not capture all the details of a real environment. Virtual reality (VR) technology nowadays allows for the creation of fully immersive environments, bringing simulations to the next level. Using rapidly advancing gaming technology, this research paper explores the applicability of creating multiplayer serious games for manufacturing simulation. First, we create and validate a hands-on activity that engages groups of students in the design and assembly of toy cars. Then, a corresponding multiplayer VR game is developed, which allows for the collaboration of multiple VR users in the same virtual environment. With a VR headset and proper infrastructure, a user can participate in a simulation game from any location. This paper explores whether multiplayer VR simulations could be used as an alternative to physical simulations.
  3. Manufacturing makes tremendous contributions to the economy as it increases gross domestic product and exports, creates high-paying jobs, generates meaningful return on investment, and supports many other sectors. The future of manufacturing depends on preparing younger generations for innovation and skill-intensive jobs through Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) programs. However, there is a dearth of manufacturing presence in the current curricular content as most STEM high school and community college educators do not have training in manufacturing concepts and likely have not worked in the modern manufacturing industry. An effective way of bringing manufacturing to the curriculum is to include simulation and automation hands-on experimentation. This paper presents the second year of an ongoing Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) Site in Manufacturing Simulation and Automation. The objectives of the program are to 1) improve instructors’ research and professional skills, and 2) help them translate the cutting-edge manufacturing research to their classrooms by creating and implementing new curricula. This will stimulate students’ interest in the topic and strengthen manufacturing education.
  4. With the rise in manufacturing jobs in the United States, companies are having a difficult time filling the job openings for skilled production workers. It takes an average of two months to fill these positions. This study is designed to introduce the fundamental concepts of manufacturing and demonstrate these concepts through hands-on simulation of the different manufacturing paradigms. The paper is the result of the authors’ participation in a six-week NSF RET program at Penn State Behrend where high school and community college educators worked together to develop curriculum for high school students. Lesson plans, handouts, and required material lists were developed and tested. Surveys conducted after the simulation experiment provided improvements for the exercise. The simulations were then implemented in high school classrooms to improve the awareness of manufacturing among high school students and develop their technical and professional skills. By understanding the evolution of manufacturing and becoming aware of the need to gain advanced skills required for today, students will be encouraged to consider pursuing careers in manufacturing.
  5. Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is commonly shown to students through low cost 3D printers. Many high school and community college educators have access to 3D printers at their home institutions. In this study, Research Experience for Teachers (RET) participants developed a set of modules which can be integrated with a design project given at both the high school and college curriculum levels to explore the concepts of manufacturing and design (e.g., dimensioning and tolerancing, Design for X, Proof of Concept, etc.). The study identified a product in which these concepts can be integrated, and developed a set of constraints the students need to consider in their design project. It was the goal of the RET participants to identify best practices for teaching 3D printing and develop projects to explain design and manufacturing concepts through 3D printing.
  6. This paper discusses the implementation of Industry 4.0 in an educational setting. Simulation, virtual reality, analytics, robotics and automation, and 3D printing are integrated to develop a small-scale production line for producing and inspecting 3D printed parts. The system consists of a robot and controller, programmable logic controller, 3D printer, machine vision system, conveyor belt, 3-phase motor and motor controller, webcam, PC and monitor, Raspberry Pi computer, pneumatic system, beam sensor, simulation software, and VR equipment. The system components are connected via ethernet cables running to a basic ethernet switch. An ethernet router is also connected to the switch to resolve IP connection attempts by the connected components. A mini CNC machine is used to drill holes on small metal parts that are assembled with 3D printed parts and plastic bricks to make a car toy. A robot is pre-programmed to perform the assembly of the car toy and a Cognex® camera is used to inspect the parts. Deep learning models are used to predict the remaining useful life of the drilling bits.
  7. Virtual reality (VR) technology allows for the creation of fully immersive environments that enable personalized manufacturing learning. This case study discusses the development of a virtual learning factory that integrates manual and automated manufacturing processes such as welding, fastening, 3D printing, painting, and automated assembly. Two versions of the virtual factory are developed: (1) a multiplayer VR environment for the design and assembly of car toys; which allows for the collaboration of multiple users in the same VR environment, and (2) a virtual plant that utilizes heavy machinery and automated assembly lines for car manufacturing. The virtual factory also includes an intelligent avatar that can interact with the users and guide them to the different sections of the plant. The virtual factory enhances the learning of advanced manufacturing concepts by combining virtual objects with hands-on activities and providing students with an engaging learning experience.
  8. The outbreak of 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has forced schools and universities around the world to adopt online learning. However, many educators are facing challenges because they do not have prior experience with online teaching and the transition happened rapidly. One effective way to keep students engaged and improve their learning is by using online simulation games. Simulation games provide opportunities for feedback and learning and can promote interdisciplinary and collaborative working styles. This research develops internet-based multi-player interactive simulation games to teach manufacturing and supply chain concepts. The players in the supply-chain games include a customer, a manufacturer, an assembler, and a supplier. The simulation games are structured into three different parts: the backend server that handles the game logic, the client server that takes user input, and the database which stores the input information. The simulation involves producing car toys that satisfy customer requirements. A group of high school and community college educators tested the simulation games and provided feedback for improvement. The simulations were then deployed in the practice of high school and undergraduate classrooms. Feedback from teachers and students indicates that online simulations can improve effectiveness of teaching and learning.