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  1. Abstract

    This article presents a comprehensive study that focuses on the techno-economic analysis of co-located wind and hydrogen energy integration within an integrated energy system (IES). The research investigates four distinct cases, each exploring various configurations of wind farms, electrolyzers, batteries, hydrogen storage tanks, and fuel cells. To obtain optimal results, the study employs a sophisticated mathematical optimization model formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. This model helps determine the most suitable component sizes and hourly energy scheduling patterns. The research utilizes historical meteorological data and wholesale market prices from diverse regions as inputs, enhancing the study’s applicability and relevance across different geographical locations. Moreover, sensitivity analyses are conducted to assess the impact of hydrogen prices, regional wind profiles, and potential future fluctuations in component prices. These analyses provide valuable insights into the robustness and flexibility of the proposed IES configurations under varying market conditions and uncertainties. The findings reveal cost-effective system configurations, strategic component selections, and implications of future energy scenarios. Specifically comparing to configurations that only have wind and battery combinations, we find that incorporating an electrolyzer results in a 7% reduction in the total cost of the IES, and utilizing hydrogen as the storage medium for fuel cells leads to a 26% cost reduction. Additionally, the IES with hybrid hydrogen and battery energy storage achieves even higher and stable power output. This research facilitates decision-making, risk mitigation, and optimized investment strategies, fostering sustainable planning for a resilient and environmentally friendly energy future.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Flow modifications induced by wind turbine rotors on the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), such as blockage and speedups, can be important factors affecting the power performance and annual energy production (AEP) of a wind farm. Further, these rotor‐induced effects on the incoming ABL can vary significantly with the characteristics of the incoming wind, such as wind shear, veer, and turbulence intensity, and turbine operative conditions. To better characterize the complex flow physics underpinning the interaction between turbine rotors and the ABL, a field campaign was performed by deploying profiling wind LiDARs both before and after the construction of an onshore wind turbine array. Considering that the magnitude of these rotor‐induced flow modifications represents a small percentage of the incoming wind speed ( ), high accuracy needs to be achieved for the analysis of the experimental data and generation of flow predictions. Further, flow distortions induced by the site topography and effects of the local climatology need to be quantified and differentiated from those induced by wind turbine rotors. To this aim, a suite of statistical and machine learning models, such as k‐means cluster analysis coupled with random forest predictions, are used to quantify and predict flow modifications for different wind and atmospheric conditions. The experimental results show that wind velocity reductions of up to 3% can be observed at an upstream distance of 1.5 rotor diameter from the leading wind turbine rotor, with more significant effects occurring for larger positive wind shear. For more complex wind conditions, such as negative shear and low‐level jet, the rotor induction becomes highly complex entailing either velocity reductions (down to 9%) below hub height and velocity increases (up to 3%) above hub height. The effects of the rotor induction on the incoming wind velocity field seem to be already roughly negligible at an upstream distance of three rotor diameters. The results from this field experiment will inform models to simulate wind‐turbine and wind‐farm operations with improved accuracy for flow predictions in the proximity of the rotor area, which will be instrumental for more accurate quantification of wind farm blockage and relative effects on AEP.

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  3. Abstract

    This work describes the results from wind tunnel experiments performed to maximize wind plant total power output using wake steering via closed loop yaw angle control. The experimental wind plant consists of nine turbines arranged in two different layouts; both are two dimensional arrays and differ in the positioning of the individual turbines. Two algorithms are implemented to maximize wind plant power: Log‐of‐Power Extremum Seeking Control (LP‐ESC) and Log‐of‐Power Proportional Integral Extremum Seeking Control (LP‐PIESC). These algorithms command the yaw angles of the turbines in the upstream row. The results demonstrate that the algorithms can find the optimal yaw angles that maximize total power output. The LP‐PIESC reached the optimal yaw angles much faster than the LP‐ESC. The sensitivity of the LP‐PIESC to variations in free stream wind speed and initial yaw angles is studied to demonstrate robustness to variations in wind speed and unknown yaw misalignment.

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  4. Abstract

    Quantification of the performance degradation on the annual energy production (AEP) of a wind farm due to leading‐edge (LE) erosion of wind turbine blades is important to design cost‐effective maintenance plans and timely blade retrofit. In this work, the effects of LE erosion on horizontal axis wind turbines are quantified using infrared (IR) thermographic imaging of turbine blades, as well as meteorological and SCADA data. The average AEP loss of turbines with LE erosion is estimated from SCADA and meteorological data to be between 3% and 8% of the expected power capture. The impact of LE erosion on the average power capture of the turbines is found to be higher at lower hub‐height wind speeds (peak around 50% of the turbine rated wind speed) and at lower turbulence intensity of the incoming wind associated with stable atmospheric conditions. The effect of LE erosion is investigated with IR thermography to identify the laminar to turbulent transition (LTT) position over the airfoils of the turbine blades. Reduction in the laminar flow region of about 85% and 87% on average in the suction and pressure sides, respectively, is observed for the airfoils of the investigated turbines with LE erosion. Using the observed LTT locations over the airfoils and the geometry of the blade, an average AEP loss of about 3.7% is calculated with blade element momentum simulations, which is found to be comparable with the magnitude of AEP loss estimated through the SCADA data.

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  5. Abstract

    Resin uptake plays a critical role in the stiffness‐to‐weight ratio of wind turbine blades in which sandwich composites are used extensively. This work examines the flexural properties of nominally half‐inch thick sandwich composites made with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam cores (H60 and H80; PSC and GPC) at several resin uptakes. We found that the specific flexural strength and modulus for the H80 GPC sandwich composites increase from 82.04 to 90.70 kN · m/kg and 6.03 to 7.13 MN · m/kg, respectively, with 11.0% resin uptake reduction, which stands out among the four core sandwich composites. Considering reaching a high stiffness‐to‐weight ratio while preventing resin starvation, 32% to 38% and 40% to 45% resin uptakes are adequate ranges for the H80 PSC and GPC sandwich composites, respectively. The H60 GPC sandwich composites have lower debonding toughness than H60 PSC due to stress concentration in the smooth side skin‐core interphase region. The ailure mode of the sandwich composites depends on the core stiffness and surface texture. The H60 GPC sandwich composites exhibit core shearing and bottom skin‐core debonding failure, while the H80 GPC and PSC sandwich composites show top skin cracking and core crushing failure. The findings indicate that an appropriate range of resin uptake exists for each type of core sandwich composite, and that within the range, a low‐resin uptake leads to lighter blades and thus lower cyclic gravitational loads, beneficial for long blades.

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  6. Abstract

    One‐way nested mesoscale to microscale simulations of an onshore wind farm have been performed nesting the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and our in‐house high‐resolution large‐eddy simulation code (UTD‐WF). Each simulation contains five nested WRF domains, with the largest domain spanning the north Texas Panhandle region with a 4 km resolution, while the highest resolution (50 m) nest simulates microscale wind fluctuations and turbine wakes within a single wind farm. The finest WRF domain in turn drives the UTD‐WF LES higher‐resolution domain for a subset of six turbines at a resolution of ∼5 m. The wind speed, direction, and boundary layer profiles from WRF are compared against measurements obtained with a met‐tower and a scanning Doppler wind LiDAR located within the wind farm. Additionally, power production obtained from WRF and UTD‐WF are assessed against supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system data. Numerical results agree well with the experimental measurements of the wind speed, direction, and power production of the turbines. UTD‐WF high‐resolution domain improves significantly the agreement of the turbulence intensity at the turbines location compared with that of WRF. Velocity spectra have been computed to assess how the nesting allows resolving a wide range of scales at a reasonable computational cost. A domain sensitivity analysis has been performed. Velocity spectra indicate that placing the inlet too close to the first row of turbines results in an unrealistic peak of energy at the rotational frequency of the turbines. Spectra of the power production of a single turbine and of the cumulative power of the array have been compared with analytical models.

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  7. Low-fidelity engineering wake models are often combined with linear superposition laws to predict wake velocities across wind farms under steady atmospheric conditions. While convenient for wind farm planning and long-term performance evaluation, such models are unable to capture the time-varying nature of the waked velocity field, as they are agnostic to the complex aerodynamic interactions among wind turbines and the effects of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. To account for such effects while remaining amenable to conventional system-theoretic tools for flow estimation and control, we propose a new class of data-enhanced physics-based models for the dynamics of wind farm flow fluctuations. Our approach relies on the predictive capability of the stochastically forced linearized Navier–Stokes equations around static base flow profiles provided by conventional engineering wake models. We identify the stochastic forcing into the linearized dynamics via convex optimization to ensure statistical consistency with higher-fidelity models or experimental measurements while preserving model parsimony. We demonstrate the utility of our approach in completing the statistical signature of wake turbulence in accordance with large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow over a cascade of yawed wind turbines. Our numerical experiments provide insight into the significance of spatially distributed field measurements in recovering the statistical signature of wind farm turbulence and training stochastic linear models for short-term wind forecasting.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  10. To maximize the profitability of wind power plants, wind farms are often characterized by high wind turbine density leading to operations with reduced turbine spacing. As a consequence, the overall wind farm power capture is hindered by complex flow features associated with flow modifications induced by the various wind turbine rotors. In addition to the generation of wakes, the velocity of the incoming wind field can reduce due to the increased pressure in the proximity of a single turbine rotor (named induction); a similar effect occurs at the wind-farm level (global blockage), which can have a noticeable impact on power production. On the other hand, intra-wind-farm regions featuring increased velocity compared to the freestream (speedups) have also been observed, which can be a source for a potential power boost. To quantify these rotor-induced effects on the incoming wind velocity field, three profiling LiDARs and one scanning wind LiDAR were deployed both before and after the construction of an onshore wind turbine array. The different wind conditions are classified according to the ambient turbulence intensity and streamwise/spanwise spacing among wind turbines. The analysis of the mean velocity field reveals enhanced induction and speedup under stably stratified atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, a reduced horizontal area between adjacent turbines has a small impact on the induction zone but increases significantly the speedup between adjacent rotors.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024