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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 18, 2024
  2. With the ever-increasing popularity of edge devices, it is necessary to implement real-time segmentation on the edge for autonomous driving and many other applications. Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown considerably stronger results for many vision tasks. However, ViTs with the fullattention mechanism usually consume a large number of computational resources, leading to difficulties for realtime inference on edge devices. In this paper, we aim to derive ViTs with fewer computations and fast inference speed to facilitate the dense prediction of semantic segmentation on edge devices. To achieve this, we propose a pruning parameterization method to formulate the pruning problem of semantic segmentation. Then we adopt a bi-level optimization method to solve this problem with the help of implicit gradients. Our experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve 38.9 mIoU on ADE20K val with a speed of 56.5 FPS on Samsung S21, which is the highest mIoU under the same computation constraint with real-time inference. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. As more apps embrace AI, it is becoming increasingly common that multiple Deep Neural Networks (DNN)-powered apps may run at the same time on a mobile device. This paper explores scheduling in such multi-instance DNN scenarios, on general open mobile systems (e.g., common smartphones and tablets). Unlike closed systems (e.g., autonomous driving systems) where the set of co-run apps is known beforehand, the user of an open mobile system may install or uninstall arbitrary apps at any time, and a centralized solution is subject to adoption barriers. This work proposes the first-known decentralized application-level scheduling mechanism to address the problem. By leveraging the adaptivity of Deep Reinforcement Learning, the solution is shown to make the scheduling of co-run apps converge to a Nash equilibrium point, yielding a good balance of gains among the apps. The solution moreover automatically adapts to the running environment and the underlying OS and hardware. Experiments show that the solution consistently produces significant speedups and energy savings across DNN workloads, hardware configurations, and running scenarios. 
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  4. There have been many recent attempts to extend the successes of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) from 2-dimensional (2D) image classification to 3-dimensional (3D) video recognition by exploring 3D CNNs. Considering the emerging growth of mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) market, it is essential to investigate the deployment of 3D CNNs on edge devices. Previous works have implemented standard 3D CNNs (C3D) on hardware platforms, however, they have not exploited model compression for acceleration of inference. This work proposes a hardware-aware pruning approach that can fully adapt to the loop tiling technique of FPGA design and is applied onto a novel 3D network called R(2+1)D. Leveraging the powerful ADMM, the proposed pruning method achieves simultaneous high accuracy and significant acceleration of computation on FPGA. With layer-wise pruning rates up to 10× and negligible accuracy loss, the pruned model is implemented on a Xilinx ZCU102 FPGA board, where the pruned model achieves 2.6× speedup compared with the unpruned version, and 2.3× speedup and 2.3× power efficiency improvement compared with state-of-the-art FPGA implementation of C3D. 
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  5. Automatic food type recognition is an essential task of dietary monitoring. It helps medical professionals recognize a user’s food contents, estimate the amount of energy intake, and design a personalized intervention model to prevent many chronic diseases, such as obesity and heart disease. Various wearable and mobile devices are utilized as platforms for food type recognition. However, none of them has been widely used in our daily lives and, at the same time, socially acceptable enough for continuous wear. In this paper, we propose a food type recognition method that takes advantage of Airpods Pro, a pair of widely used wireless in-ear headphones designed by Apple, to recognize 20 different types of food. As far as we know, we are the first to use this socially acceptable commercial product to recognize food types. Audio and motion sensor data are collected from Airpods Pro. Then 135 representative features are extracted and selected to construct the recognition model using the lightGBM algorithm. A real-world data collection is conducted to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the proposed method for seven human subjects. The results show that the average f1-score reaches 94.4% for the ten-fold cross- validation test and 96.0% for the self-evaluation test. 
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  6. More specialized chips are exploiting available high transistor density to expose parallelism at a large scale with more intricate instruction sets. This paper reports on a compilation system GCD^2 , developed to support complex Deep Neural Network (DNN) workloads on mobile DSP chips. We observe several challenges in fully exploiting this architecture, related to SIMD width, more complex SIMD/vector instructions, and VLIW pipeline with the notion of soft dependencies. GCD^2 comprises the following contributions: 1) development of matrix layout formats that support the use of different novel SIMD instructions, 2) formulation and solution of a global optimization problem related to choosing the best instruction (and associated layout) for implementation of each operator in a complete DNN, and 3) SDA, an algorithm for packing instructions with consideration for soft dependencies. These solutions are incorporated in a complete compilation system that is extensively evaluated against other systems using 10 large DNN models. Evaluation results show that GCD^2 outperforms two product-level state-of-the-art end-to-end DNN execution frameworks (TFLite and Qualcomm SNPE) that support mobile DSPs by up to 6.0× speedup, and outperforms three established compilers (Halide, TVM, and RAKE) by up to 4.5×,3.4× and 4.0× speedup, respectively. GCD^2 is also unique in supporting, real-time execution of certain DNNs, while its implementation enables two major DNNs to execute on a mobile DSP for the first time. 
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