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  1. Lischka, A. E. ; Dyer, E. B. ; Jones, R. S. ; Lovett, J. N.. ; Strayer, J. ; Drown, S. (Ed.)
    The frequentist and classical models of probability provide students with different lenses through which they can view probability. Prior research showed that students may bridge these two lenses through instructional designs that begin with a clear connection between the two, such as coin tossing. Considering that this connection is not always clear in our life experiences, we aimed to examine how an instructional design that begins with a scientific scenario that does not naturally connect to theoretical probability, such as the weather, may support students’ bridging of these two models. In this paper, we present data from a design experiment in a sixth-grade classroom to discuss how students’ shifts of reasoning as they engaged with such a design supported their construction of bridges between the two probability models. 
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  2. Instructional designs that include two or more artifacts (digital manipulatives, tables, graphs) have shown to support students’ development of reasoning about covarying quantities. However, research often neglects how this development occurs from the student point of view during the interactions with these artifacts. An analysis from this lens could significantly justify claims about what designs really support students’ covariational reasoning. Our study makes this contribution by examining the “messiness” of students’ transitions as they interact with various artifacts that represent the same covariational situation. We present data from a design experiment with a pair of sixth-grade students who engaged with the set of artifacts we designed (simulation, table, and graph) to explore quantities that covary. An instrumental genesis perspective is followed to analyze students’ transitions from one artifact to the next. We utilize the distinction between static and emergent shape thinking to make inferences about their reorganizations of reasoning as they (re-)form a system of instruments that integrates previously developed instruments. Our findings provide an insight into the nature of the synergy of artifacts that offers a constructive space for students to shape and reorganize their meanings about covarying quantities. Specifically, we propose different subcategories of complementarities and antagonisms between artifacts that have the potential to make this synergy productive. 
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  3. Lischka, A. E. ; Dyer, E. B. ; Jones, R. S. ; Lovett, J. N.. ; Strayer, J. ; & Drown, S. (Ed.)
    Many studies use instructional designs that include two or more artifacts (digital manipulatives, tables, graphs) to support students’ development of reasoning about covarying quantities. While students’ forms of covariational reasoning and the designs are often the focus of these studies, the way students’ interactions and transitions between artifacts shape their actions and thinking is often neglected. By examining the transitions that students make between artifacts as they construct and reorganize their reasoning, our study aimed to justify claims made by various studies about the nature of the synergy of artifacts. In this paper, we present data from a design experiment with a pair of sixth-grade students to discuss how their transitions between artifacts provided a constructive space for them to reason about covarying quantities in graphs. 
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  4. Olanoff, D. ; Johnson, K. ; Spitzer, S. (Ed.)
    In this paper we examine sixth grade students’ constructions and reorganizations of variational, covariational, and multivariational reasoning as they engaged in dynamic digital tasks exploring the science phenomenon of weather. We present case studies of two students from a larger whole-class design experiment to illustrate students’ forms of reasoning and the type of design that supported those constructions and reorganizations. We argue that students constructed multivariational relationships by bridging, transforming, and reforming their reasoning and that the nature of the multivariational relationship being constructed affected this process. 
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  5. We present a Scratch task we designed and implemented for teaching and learning coordinates in a dynamic and engaging way. We use the 5Es framework to describe the students' interactions with the task and offer suggestions of how other teachers may adopt it to successfully implement Scratch tasks. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Integrating mathematics content into science usually plays a supporting role, where students use their existing mathematical knowledge for solving science tasks without exhibiting any new mathematical meanings during the process. To help students explore the reciprocal relationship between math and science, we designed an instructional module that prompted them to reason covariationally about the quantities involved in the phenomenon of the gravitational force. The results of a whole-class design experiment with sixth-grade students showed that covariational reasoning supported students’ understanding of the phenomenon of gravity. Also, the examination of the phenomenon of gravity provided a constructive space for students to construct meanings about co-varying quantities. Specifically, students reasoned about the change in the magnitudes and values of mass, distance, and gravity as those changed simultaneously as well as the multiplicative change of these quantities as they changed in relation to each other. They also reasoned multivariationally illustrating that they coordinated mass and distance working together to define the gravitational force. Their interactions with the design, which included the tool, tasks, representations, and questioning, showed to be a structuring factor in the formation and reorganization of meanings that students exhibited. Thus, this study illustrates the type of design activity that provided a constructive space for students’ forms of covariational reasoning in the context of gravity. This design can be used to develop other STEM modules that integrate scientific phenomena with covariational reasoning through technology. 
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  7. We provide an example from our integrated math and science curriculum where students explore the mathematical relationships underlying various science phenomena. We present the tasks we designed for exploring the covariation relationships that underlie the concept of gravity and discuss the generalizations students made as they interacted with those tasks. 
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